Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Dilemmas of Corporate Power in a Democratic Society Essay

Dilemmas of Corporate Power in a Democratic Society - Essay Example This is because the aspects of the problems of group power within a government have remained hidden behind accidents of legal form. The growth of group power from legal control has progressed due to the following factors. First, the ability and tradition of powerful organizations to remain unincorporated and, therefore, escape many of the liabilities of the corporate person. Second are the restrictions of equitable measures which have prevented the courts from punishing abuse of power by organizations in reference to their members. Thirdly, there has been excess freedom of organizations to disguise themselves as charitable foundations which has made many business activities to be clothed as charitable foundations. Private power has been employed by lawyers and politicians to infringe on the freedoms of individuals and the balance of public decisions which may become susceptible in the face of such power. According to Dabbah, on the basis of liberal democracy, this problem is twofold and constitutes a real dilemma. Citizens have the right to have their freedoms entitled to them which they are free to exercise. Thus, these freedoms should not be forced or imposed on others. Power in liberal democratic societies in the public realm is only recognized by those who hold it legitimately according to the law, while in the private sphere, power does not go beyond the limited prerogatives allotted within the firm to its owner.Beyond these limitations, private power in a liberal democracy is seen to be abusive.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Historical Background Of Hamas Essay Example for Free

Historical Background Of Hamas Essay Terrorism, like wars, threatens humanity. However, there are some intriguing issues that are tied up with terrorist groups without undermining underlying motivations in their formation. For instance, there are definitely causes for their emergence and this is their history. A case in point is HAMAS, an organized group categorized in current time as a terrorist group. This paper will assert to present the brief historical background of Hamas necessarily from four major driving forces namely: leadership and social structure, violence, and external influences. It must be noted however, that due to the limited space and resources, this discourse found some gray areas, controversial ones, that need further documentary research and analysis. From the Arabic â€Å"Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya† is taken the acronym HAMAS, which translates into English as â€Å"Islamic Resistance Movement. † 1 Further, from the same source, the acronym HAMAS is itself an Arabic word which means â€Å"enthusiasm, fire, ardor, fervor, zeal, fanaticism. † Although the movement was organized much earlier, its acronym Hamas came into being in 1987 when it directed its efforts against the Israelis resulting from Intifada. There is consistency in the narrative that the movement emerged to be known as Hamas since it started as an offshoot of Muslim Brotherhood which was founded in Egypt in 1928. 2 However, Richard Sale, a UPI Terrorism Correspondent says that Hamas was legally registered in Israel in 1978. 3 Organizing Hamas was the idea of its spiritual leader Shiek Ahmed Yassin. Accordingly, from the same source, Hamas was not only funded by the oil-producing states but also controversially, both directly and indirectly by Israel. From the beginning of its organization, Hamas was led by its founder and spiritual leader Shiek Ahmed Yassin. He was assassinated on March 22, 2004 by a missile strike of Israel. 4 He was succeeded by Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi immediately but was also assassinated in less than a month on April 17, 2004 by an Israeli airstrike. 5 Because of the tragic experience with reference to the Hamas leadership, the members voted among themselves the next successor without disclosing the name for confidentiality purposes. Still from the same source, it is suspected that Mahmoud al-Zahar is the successor of Rantissi. From the sources read, there was no indication at any point for the existence of power struggle among the members of Hamas in terms of leader selection. Mention however, was made to the fact that Hamas’s membership in the West Bank are coming from various groups with financial resources such as merchants, landowners, officials and professionals, all representing a substantial group in a higher socio-economic status. They dedicated themselves to help the grassroots and disadvantaged members of the Palestinian society. These included charitable services like clinics, kindergartens, and education6, runs schools, orphanages, mosques, health care clinics, soup kitchens and sports leagues. 7 Not stopping at welfare services, Hamas is also a movement that occupied itself with social concerns such as â€Å"exposing corruption, administration of waqfs (trusts) and organizing community projects†. 8 Analysis tells us that Hamas is not a movement that takes upon social struggle for their own survival financially speaking; they reach out to the poorer sectors of society. It is this discussant’s assumption that in spite of the composition of the organization’s membership who could have clashed for leadership, there was no leadership conflict because of the trustworthiness of leadership and the corrupt-free culture of the movement. Its founding leader Shiek Ahmed Yassin (Hamas Had a Long History of Conflict with Israel) was a preacher himself, meaning a religious person, and under his leadership the group did many social welfare and social services at the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Interestingly, Shiek Ahmed Yassin was a quadriplegic who could not move his body or his limbs yet he remained at the leadership of the Hamas until his assassination in 2004. 10 In spite of Yassin’s demise, Hamas gaining popularity among the people grabbed political victory over Fatah in 2006, the party of the late Yasser Arafat and later, of its President Mahmoud Abbas of the Palestine Authority. 11 How Hamas became a terrorist group was a consequence of events. It is said that Israel was doing its recruitment of young Palestinians popularly referred to as the Intifada in 1987 and signaled the resort to violence by Hamas. Intifada was the upsurge of anger among Palestinian Arabs of the Gaza Strip and West bank that began in 1987 up to the early 1990s to demonstrate protest against Israel occupation of the two territories. The recruitment was taken by Hamas as collaboration with the Israelis and they used violence by beating those who were working with the Israeli government and later progressed to targeting Israel military then the civilians. 12 From then on, narratives of the Hamas violent and terrorist acts increased to become stories of terror. Buel says â€Å"Perhaps Hamas is best known for recruiting, training and arming suicide bombers. 13 Hamas since then has a countless number of terrorist acts committed highlighted by unthinkable suicide bombings. A number of external forces play significant roles in the Hamas Movement. To cite some, there is Palestine, the United States, the oil-producing states, Israel, the nations next to the borders of Gaza Strip and the West Bank, and recently, Iran. So urces have it that the formation, existence, and â€Å"creation† of Hamas are to some degree also the responsibility of Israel. 14 From the 1970s and on to the 1980s, Israel, like the Arab oil-producing states were supportive both directly and indirectly to Hamas. It was not much of the social welfare functions that Hamas was doing that Israel was supporting them. They had other interests for Hamas. First, Israel’s support to Hamas was an attempt as a â€Å"counterbalance to the PLO† (Palestinian Liberation Organization) spearheaded by the late Yasser Arafat believed to be a leftist, as a â€Å"direct attempt to divide and dilute support for a strong, secular PLO by using a competing religious alternative†. 15 Second, Israeli needed Hamas â€Å"to help identify and channel towards Israeli agents Hamas members who were dangerous terrorists†. 6 Third, Israel wants to deal with the United States as being the only democratic country in the region. 17 The oil-exporting countries are no longer in the picture whether they are still supporting Hamas or not anymore. The countries lying next to the borders of Gaza Strip and the West Bank, directly or indirectly will continue to be affected by the fate of Palestine versus Isra el. The most recent external force is the claim that Hamas is an â€Å"Iranian-backed terrorist organization founded in 1988 with the stated aim of destroying Israel†. 8 This development is a shift from the former reputation of Hamas as a social welfare movement. Iran has come into play in the picture. Hamas’s charter which was published in 1988 opens with the statement â€Å"Israel will rise and remain erect until Islam eliminates it as it had eliminated its predecessors†. 19 Moreover, still from the same source, it is said that the guiding principles of the group â€Å"rejects peaceful efforts to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and calls for the destruction of the State of Israel through jihad, or holy war. Hamas considers all of Israel to be occupied territory. † Hamas started as a charity movement helping the needy and a large sector of the population of Gaza Strip and the west Bank. It was organized as a movement by members of the middle class in Palestine society to address the social needs of the people. Their popularity as a helping movement was translated into their political victory in 2006 over Fatah, the long time ruling party of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. Later, it evolved, although still maintaining its charitable nature, to go violent against the Israelis due to the past bloody encounters and experiences they had with the Israelis. For instance, many of the high ranking officials of Hamas were killed by Israelis or their instrumentalities. Hamas as stipulated in their charter stands on its principle that no dialogue will succeed on their differences versus Israel; it is through violence that they will succeed. The United States being the forerunner of democracy and under the new phenomenal leadership of Obama could be a promise of peace or a continued war between Israel and Palestine. As the nations of the world continue to tackle global peace, the rest of us can pray for peace to reign on our only planet, the Earth.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Masculinity and Evolutionary Psychology Essay -- Gender Roles

When attempting to explain something as intangible and complex as human behavior it is difficult to devise experiments that lead to conclusive results. Sometimes complex problems are easier to solve when they are broken down into smaller pieces or into simpler problems that are more approachable. Using human evolution to explain human behavior is such an example. Evolutionary psychology reaches for the roots of human development when they were in their most basic stages to explain why people behave the way they do. Specifically, explaining human masculinity through science has been a major focus of evolutionary psychology. This paper seeks to explain why masculinity cannot be explained by sociology alone and will present evidence that certain male behavior such as aggression can be explained through evolutionary psychology and sexual selection. When considering the source of human behavior people often argue about how much human behavior is encoded genetically and how much is learned through interaction with society and the environment. This â€Å"nature versus nurture† debate arises frequently when discussing many aspects of human behavior. In an essay entitled â€Å"The Gender Blur: Where Does Biology End and Society Take Over,† Pulitzer Prize-winning professor of journalism Deborah Blum draws the conclusion that both nature and nurture must be taken into account to explain human behavior. Her conclusions are drawn principally from childhood behavior and her discussions with noted scientists. As a parent she observed that her son loved dinosaurs from the early age of two-and-a-half years old. However, she noticed that â€Å"he loved dinosaurs, but only the blood-swilling carnivores. Plant-eaters were wimps and lose... ...odern male behavior. Works Cited Blum, Deborah. â€Å"The Gender Blur: Where Does Biology End and Society Take Over?† Signs of Life In the USA: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers. Ed. Sonia Maasik. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2000. Crawford, Charles and Dennis L. Krebs. Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology: Ideas, Issues, and Applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998. Daly, Martin and Margo Wilson. â€Å"Darwinism and the Roots of Machismo.† Scientific American (2002). Kenyon, Paul. â€Å"Overview of Evolutionary Psychology and Mating Strategies.† Human Behavior and Evolution Society. 2000. University of Plymouth. 4 Apr. 2000 . Peterson, Dale, and Richard Wrangham. Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence. Mariner Books, 1997.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Powdered Coconut Husk, Okra Mucilage, Water Hyacinth and Starch as Alternative Plastic Composites Essay

The present condition of our country regarding the use of plastics demands that people explore other means whereby proportionate products can be produced out of raw materials which are commonly disregarded. One of these is the utilization of solid wastes which could yield excellent useful results. Largely an agricultural country, Philippines provides various local raw materials, the utilization of which may lead to the country’s industrialization. Philippines provide ample farm products having great possibilities for some purposes. An example of which is the coconut husk fiber or cocos nucifera. Although some use this for making native products, this study used this for an alternative bioplastic product making it more different than the usual ones. Water hyacinth, which is commonly found almost in some rivers and considered as another solid waste is to be used also in this project study. Although it has the same function as the coconut husk fiber, this is used to lessen the number or amount of water hyacinth in our environment because of its abundance and bad effects. To improve the quality of the bioplastic product,the researchers used okra wherein mucilage can be found which lessens the brittleness of the said product because of the so called, glycirin. Another concerned material in the study is cornstarch. It is the source of polymer which is said to be the building blocks of the eco-friendly plastic product. What makes this study different is that the researchers used raw materials which are seldomly used in a more different way and utilize it to make a new product which could yield useful results. Moreover, the main purpose of this study, is to make plastic that can be decomposed easily since it uses raw materials, to use starch instead of chemicals and to utilize some of the solid wastes in our society. Plastic is a versatile and potentially indestructible material, which makes it ideal for a number of commercial and household uses. Indeed, plastic has become a substitute for many items which used to be made from other substances, such as plastic bottles for drinks, condiments and many other more. In many cases, this is extremely useful and convenient. However, usage of plastic has caused many environmental downsides. This is because, plastic is so resilient that even burying it deep within the Earth doesn’t keep it from impacting the environment. Although plastics can be recycled, many people still burn them and we all know that it is harmful to the environment. It may also affect people’s health because plastics contain many chemical additives which causes illnesses like endocrine disruption which can lead to cancers, birth defects, immune system suppression and developmental problems in children. And worse it can also lead to toxicity of living organisms and marine animals. This ecological problem impelled the development of new materials that can be substitutes in producing biodegradable plastic which led us to think the utilization of eco- friendly materials that can be an alternative in making bioplastic. Scopes and Limitations The research study was concerned with utilizing coconut husk fibers or cocus nucifera and water hyacinth in producing a bioplastic product. The research focused not only on the simple production but also the quality of the said product in terms of brittleness and flexibility. Mucilage was obtained from okra where glycirin is found and improves the brittleness of the product. Furthermore, this study is also concerned in using cornstarch as the source of polymer considered as the building blocks of the product. Statement of the Problem The purpose of this study is to produce an alternative plastic made up of organic materials. Another purpose of this study is to answer the following questions: 1. What will be the organic material used in making the plastic? 2. What content(s) is/are most effective in making the bioplastic more efficient than than Plastics- any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids that are moldable. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, but many are partially natural. Biodegradable Plastics- plastics that will decompose in natural aerobic (composting) and anaerobic (landfill) environments. Biodegradation of plastics occurs when microorganisms metabolize the plastics to either ssimilable compounds or to humus-like materials that are less harmful to the environment. They may be composed of either bioplastics, which are plastics whose components are derived from renewable raw materials, or petroleum-based plastics which contain additives. Glycerol- (or glycerine, glycerin) is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. The glycerol backbone is central to all lipids known as triglycerides. Glycerol is sweet-tasting and of low toxicity. Polymer- is the main building block of all plastics. It is a large molecule (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units. These sub-units are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds. Although the term polymer is sometimes taken to refer to plastics, it actually encompasses a large class of compounds comprising both natural and synthetic materials with a wide variety of properties. Mucilage- a thick, gluey substance produced by nearly all plants and some microorganisms. It is a polar glycoprotein and an exopolysaccharide. Mucilage in plants plays a role in the storage of water and food, seed germination, and thickening membranes. Starch- or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by all green plants as an energy store. It is the most common carbohydrate in the human diet and is contained in large amounts in such staple foods as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice, and cassava. Starch is made of two basic components: amylose and amylopectin. Amylose- is a very long and straight polymer like we want to have in our study. Amylopectin- on the other hand is a branched and short polymer meaning it will yield brittle and weak plastic which is not good. Vinegar- a liquid substance consisting mainly of acetic acid (CH3CO2H) and water, the acetic acid being produced through the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. By adding a small amount of vinegar to the plastic, we can break up some of the branches of the amylopectin which otherwise would make it brittle. Water hyacinth- is a free-floating perennial aquatic plant native to tropical and sub-tropical South America. With broad, thick, glossy, ovate leaves, water hyacinth may rise above the surface of the water as much as 1 meter in height. The leaves are 10–20 cm across, and float above the water surface. They have long, spongy and bulbous stalks. The feathery, freely hanging roots are purple-black. An erect stalk supports a single spike of 8-15 conspicuously attractive flowers, mostly lavender to pink in colour with six petals.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Importance of Slavery Essay

Economic, geographic, and social factors all contributed to the rise of importance for slaves in the southern colonies as their position in American society changed from 1607 and 1775. Slaves not only influenced Jamestown in 1607, but they influenced America, all the way into the American Revolution in 1775. Slavery ultimately flourished and aided economic triumph in the southern colonies. With the hopes of making it big in the new colonies, indentured servants came through the headright system, usually people who lacked funds of any sort hoping to make money. During this time, English practiced mercantilism and since they lacked the proper agriculture to grow tobacco. John Rolfe made it a cash crop in the new colonies and they were able to sell it quite easily to their mother country, England. This lasted until about the time of Bacon’s Rebellion where indentured servants were mad due to them thinking they would get land after their 20 years of work. But with this the south turned to slavery as a viable option. Now they could tell by just the color of their skin what class they were in. The triangular trade made this even better. They got more and made slaves work on their large plantations. Since slaves were not citizens they had no rights. The South flourished with their labor. They had huge profits. America did not just depend on tobacco they also had rice and indigo that helped the economy an immense amount. Social factors in the south also encouraged growth. The American slave code is based off the barbatos slave code. Aristocrats who were at the top of the pyramid in social class had many slaves. The blacks were at the bottom and they had no rights. The slave owners often had there slaves reproduce to make them more slaves. The more slaves you had the more money, and the higher nobility you had. Racism was a huge social factor of slavery. The whites thought they were superior to the blacks and they showed it. with the social presser to hate blacks slavery would not have been so successful economically. The geography of the southern colonies was not suited to standard farming as that of the northern colonies. The soil of the land was not suited to the growing of standard crops like wheat and corn. Also, the hot weather of the south did not allow for easy farming, and its wet and temperate sub-tropical climates was best suited for the growing of tobacco, rice, and indigo. Along with this, the extensive river system which divided the southern colonies into tiny interconnected pieces provided the best transportation for mass goods and for wet soil. The many river parts of the south made it easy to transfer goods grown on plantations, and to facilitate the purchase of slaves.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Promotional Campaign for AF

Promotional Campaign for AF Brand positioning Abercrombie and Fitch is an American apparel seller. It was one of the most successful clothing retailers in the country.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Promotional Campaign for AF specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, after the 2007 and 2008 global recession, AF have been recording dwindling profits for four consecutive years (Hoovers Inc. 2010). AF believes that discounts cheapen the brand and cause saturation (Rosenbloom 2009). Secondly, the organisation has not changed its product portfolio for close to two decades. Its clothes are not edgy as it mostly focuses on classical pieces (Datamonitor USA 2009). This approach has made it unpopular among the youthful market. Clearly, the company needs to reinvent itself if it hopes to survive in the fashion industry. The best place to start this journey would be in the international market, with specific emphasis on China. Shown below is a table il lustrating why the company needs to revamp its brand. Challenge Parameter Quantity Stores closed in 2012 number 71 Projected store-closures by 2015 number 1080 Sales declines in 2012 Percentage (%) 26 Sales declines in 2009 Percentage (%) 30 The chart above illustrates market share in the clothing retail market today.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More AF needs a new approach to its products. It has traditionally employed a risky sexual image to market its clothes. Flagship stores often use semi-dressed models to welcome clients. Several marketing campaigns have sparked off controversy on the overt sexiness of the brand. Additionally, the company uses its rich American heritage as a point of differentiation among retailers. Aside from the latter, the AF brand is renowned for high quality and sophistication. The company does not just sell clothes; it se lls a lifestyle to its consumers. Stores are dimly lit and stylish, while retail assistants endeavour to pamper their buyers. To maintain exclusivity, the company sells a maximum of 20 items to its consumers. However, such an approach seems to have failed in the recent economy. The company needs a marketing campaign that will revamp the brand (Percy and Elliott 2009). The following is a SWOT analysis of the company’s brand position Strengths Weaknesses Distinctive brand Expensive clothing Classic American image Highly sexual brand image Influential advertisements in the US Dwindling market in the US market High quality merchandise Lack of appeal among the youth Insensitivity to fashion trends Opportunities Threats Expand into Asia Indigenous Chinese brands may have a large market share Exploit cheap advertising and labour costs in Asia The highly sexual brand image may backfire in Asia Maximise casual consumption market at home Other western brands like HM are already in Asia Creative approach Marketing objectives The three goals of this promotional campaign are: Raise brand awareness in the Chinese market: The primary goal of the campaign is to penetrate the Chinese fashion market by fostering brand awareness. Increase brand sales: Poor performance in the home market necessitates increases in sales in the new market. Once the campaign has created customer trust, then this should lead to an increase in sales for AF products. Strengthen brand identity: The campaign strategy also focuses on strengthening brand identity by introducing efficient marketing ads. It will foster long-term perception of AF as a lifestyle brand. Key message â€Å"Bare yourself† is the key message in the campaign. While the latter communication has been used quite literally in western markets, this message will be reinvented in the Chinese market.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Promotional Campaign for AF specifically f or you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Instead of attaching a sexual meaning to the phrase, AF will redefine it to mean self expression and truthfulness. There will be no shirtless models in the fashion show or outdoor posters and banners. The Chinese are very conservative people who would not resonate with such a level of explicitness. The promotion will emphasise pride in oneself as a plan for self expression. Media strategy Communication mix Public relations Social media awareness will be a significant pillar of the campaign. China’s primary social media website is Weibo. Therefore, AF will use this platform to implement the promotion. It will create a Weibo company web page that will contain information about the company, commercials and other updates concerning AF. Customers can also share their experiences with each other concerning the same. Additionally, public relations will occur through in-app mobile advertising. Here, the company will reach i ts target audience through a smart phone application. The target audience is increasingly relying on mobile phones for internet access, so this would be a highly effective way of reaching them. Finally, the company will sponsor sporting events so as to popularise the brand. Sales Promotion This aspect will involve student discounts, a fashion show, as well as a lucky draw. They will last for one month after launching the flagship store because buyers need an inducement to visit AF (Hackley 2010).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If customers purchase goods over a certain amount, they will be entitled to a lucky draw where they could win specific gifts. Fashion shows have always been effective marketing tools for this retailer in different parts of the world; therefore, China will not be an exception. When launching the flagship store, AF will have a fashion show that consists of intercultural models. The reason behind this approach is to show Chinese customers that the brand is international. Using only American models would alienate buyers and cause them to perceive the brand as exclusively western (Akaka Alden 2010). The event will host a series of Chinese celebrities, bloggers and media personalities so as to increase the popularity of the brand and to raise awareness (Belch and Belch 2008). Direct marketing AF will market its products directly to consumers through a mobile application. Individuals will get information through Wechat and QR codes. The retailer will communicate with buyers on the AF bran d such that the can know the basics about it (Cook 2001). Customers will see images of models in the retailer’s clothes; learn about nearby retailer stores and other sales intricacies. Advertisement The AF message will also be carried forward in mass advertisements. Train stations and high –traffic areas will have posters and banners that promote the opening of the retail store (Leiss et. al. 2005). Celebrities will endorse the product by wearing it, and their images will also be posted all over billboards in the Chinese capital Beijing. The firm will work with individuals like Edison Chen (shown below) to promote the business (McFall 2004). Other posters will have images of young couples jumping in the wind and others having fun at the beach. The posters will encourage buyers to express and bare themselves. Viral video campaigns will also form part of the promotional exercise. The ad will last for five minutes (Sasser Kosolow 2013). In it, two gentlemen, at a golf c ourse, will walk toward a parking lot while chatting. One of them will have an AF t-shirt while the other will not. Once they get to a well polished and impressive car, they will start looking for something and a parking lot attendant will come their way. The attendant will then hand over the car keys to the AF wearer because he looks like the owner of the vehicle. They both giggle and exchange the keys. As they drive off, someone in the background will say ‘With Abercrombie Fitch nobody will ever know the difference.’ The ad will be available in YouTube and will also air after the prime-time news. Implementation The four-stage campaign will start on 1st March and end on 31st May. These are the phases involved in the campaign Planning In this phase, the company will work with stakeholders, interview members of a focus group and prepare for the campaign roll out. The company will mobilise resources for the campaign and sign contracts with various media outlets. Planning will commence on the 1st of March and end on the 31st of March. Implementation Here, the organisation will launch the social media website, outdoor banners as well as the viral video. Implementation starts on 1st April and ends on the 30th of that same month. Monitoring During the campaign promotion, it will be crucial to monitor the effectiveness of the campaign. The firm will make minor adjustments in order to ascertain that everything is going according to plan (Rayner 2007). This aspect will take place between the 1st of Aril and 31st May. Evaluation: AF will carry out an evaluation of the promotional campaign after it is officially over from May. The company will analyse sales data and social media feedback. This information will be compared to retail competitors in the country as well as sales projections in the company. Target audience The campaign targets youthful, affluent Chinese customers between the age of 16 and 24. This market would be ideal for an American fashion bra nd because Chinese buyers have a strong preference for foreign products. International fashion retailers, like HM, are already doing so well in this country (Li 2010). Affluent or higher income consumers will also be part of the target demographic. BCG (2011) reports that affluent buyers in China look for emotional gratification in products. Wearing international brands assists them in gaining recognition and respect (Li et. al. 2004). This category of Chinese consumers is also willing to pay a premium for convenience (Li 2010). AF should place its flagship store at an affluent location so as to increase convenience. Price discounts need not be a priority for older, affluent buyers, so only students will be entitled to the incentive. Using celebrities to endorse the product will tap into the need for recognition that many buyers have. A youthful market would also be perfect for the brand because it is fashion savvy and impressionable (Evans et. al. 2005). They place a lot of emphasi s on new trends by learning about them from the media (Zhang 2010). Therefore, this demographic group pays a lot of attention to television advertisements, magazines and other forms of mass media. It is for this reason that the campaign will take advantage of a myriad of platforms (Fill 2009). The above category of consumers is the primary audience for the promotional campaign. However, this campaign will also consist of secondary and tertiary audiences. Trend-setting artists, bloggers and fashion icons will be the secondary audience. They affect opinions on fashion items so their support will affect the reception of the AF brand in China (Pickton and Broderick 2005). Finally, this campaign will also target sports clubs and societies in order to enlarge the brand’s popularity. The latter will be the tertiary audience, and their involvement will assist in lending credibility to the AF brand. Effectiveness The first goal of the campaign is to generate awareness. Therefore, the company will measure the number of visitors in the store before the campaign, during and after the campaign. New versus returning visitors will be compared. To assess the second goal, the firm will compare sales before and after the program. Additionally, the third goal of creating brand loyalty will be assessed by measuring increases in return clients. All figures are available through in-store sales (Chang Thorson 2004). AF will also assess the number of times that it appears on Chinese fashion blogs or websites before and after the campaign. It will monitor feedback from its consumers through surveys. The table below illustrates how the company will evaluate the value of each media platform. Method Duration of measurement Frequency of measurement Parameters Weibo (social media) Assessment of visitors, likes on Weibo Throughout campaign Bi-weekly Number of visitors In-app mobile advert Analysis of call-backs, emails, and correspondence Throughout Weekly Number of call-ba cks, emails and correspondence Viral video Total traffic on television media platform and viewers on YouTube. Throughout the campaign Weekly Number Fashion show Brand referral survey Number of AF mentions on blogs and magazines 3 months I week -% -Number In-store promotions Sales figure assessments One month Once Amount in dollars Outdoor banner Brand recall survey in nearby locations 2 months Once Number of recalls Conclusion Abercrombie and Fitch is an American retailer that is doing relatively poorly in its home market. The firm’s traditional marketing approach of promoting an exclusive lifestyle is falling out favour. Declining profits, store closures and negative sentiments testify to this. Therefore, the promotional campaign will deal with these positioning issues by introducing the brand to the Chinese market. In the creative approach, the key goals of the campaign are to raise brand awareness, increase brand sales and strengthen brand identity in the ta rget market. â€Å"Bare yourself† is the key message; however, the company will redefine it to mean self expression rather than the overt sexiness of the western campaigns. The media strategy will consist of a public relations, sales promotion, direct marketing and advertising segment. In public relations, the company will use China’s key social media website, known as Weibo, as well as in-app advertising to inform the public about its offerings. It will also sponsor sporting events. The sales promotions bit will consist of a fashion show in which celebrities, media bloggers and fashion writers will attend. Students will also get discounts during the first month of opening the flagship store. Direct marketing will consist of mobile applications. Advertising will involve banners and posters with images of celebrities and happy couples wearing AF merchandise. It will also consist of a viral video campaign in which a parking attendant will mistake an AF wearer for the own er of an impressive car. This promotion will target youthful, affluent Chinese customers as the key demographic. The secondary audience will consist of fashion icons, bloggers and influential artists. Sporting clubs and societies are the tertiary audience. AF will assess the effectiveness of the campaign through a comparison of new and returning visitors, in store-sales, visits on the Weibo page, call backs and email correspondence, brand recall survey, traffic on YouTube for the viral video, brand referral surveys and assessment of the number of mentions in fashion blogs and sites. Through these platforms, the company will revitalise its name and boost profits. References Akaka, M Alden, D 2010, ‘Global positioning and perceptions: International advertising and global consumer culture’, International Journal of Advertising, vol. 29 vol. 1, pp. 37-56. BCG 2011, The Age of the Affluent: The dynamics of China’s next consumption engine. Web. Belch, G and Belch, M 2 008, Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective, McGraw Hill, New York. Chang, Y Thorson, E 2004, ‘Television and web advertising synergies’, Journal of Advertising, vol.33 no. 4, pp. 75-84. Cook, G 2001, The Discourse of Advertising, Routledge, London. Datamonitor USA 2009, Company Profile: Abercrombie Fitch Co., Routledge, New York. Evans, W, Price, S and Blahut, S 2005, ‘Evaluating the truth Brand’, Journal of Health Communication, vol. 10 no. 2, pp. 181–92. Fill, C 2009, Marketing Communications: Interactivity, Communication and Content, Pearson, Essex. Hackley, C 2010, Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Approach, Sage, London. Hoovers Inc. 2010, Hoover?s In-Depth Company Records: Abercrombie Fitch Co., Minale, Austin,TX. Leiss, W, Kline, S, Jhally, S and Botterill, J 2005, Social Communication in Advertising: consumption in the mediated marketplace, Routledge, London. Li, J, Ji n, X Liu, Y 2004, ‘Statistical analysis of Chinese urban residents’ clothing consumption’, Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology, and Management, vol. 4 no. 2, pp. 1-12. Li, M 2010, Report of Chinese Clothing Industry Annual Report 2009, Guo Lin, Beijing. McFall, L 2004, Advertising: A Cultural Economy, Sage, London. Percy, L, and Elliott R 2009, Strategic Advertising Management, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Pickton, D and Broderick, A 2005, Integrated Marketing Communications, Pearson Education, London. Rayner, S 2007, ‘Brand communications at its best’, Elemental Design, February, p. 9. Rosenbloom, S 2009, ‘Abercrombie to Lower Prices; Penney’s Profit Falls’, The New York Times, 16 May, pp.B2 Sasser, S Kosolow, S 2013, ‘Desperately seeking advertising creativity: Engaging an imaginative 3Ps agenda’, Journal of Advertising, vol. 13 no. 6, pp. 5-30. Zhang, H 2010, Outlook to The Future of Chinese Clothing M arket, Na Lian, Wuhan.

Monday, October 21, 2019

The Normal Heart

The Normal Heart Larry Kramer wrote The Normal Heart, a semi-autobiographical award-winning play based on his experiences as a gay man during the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in New York. The protagonist, Ned Weeks, is Kramer’s alter ego - an outspoken and acerbic personality who was the voice of reason so many people both inside and outside the gay community refused to listen to or follow. Kramer himself originated the Gay Men’s Health Crisis which was one of the first groups founded to help victims of AIDS and spread awareness of the disease. Kramer was later forced out of the group he helped to found due to the board of directors feeling he was over confrontational and hostile. Sexual Revolution In the beginning of the 1980s, the gay population in America was experiencing a sexual revolution. Especially in New York City, gay men and women finally felt free enough to come â€Å"out of the closet† and express pride in who they were and the lives they wished to lead. This sexual revolution coincided with the outbreak of HIV/AIDS and the only prevention advocated by medical personnel at that time was abstinence. This solution was unacceptable to a population of oppressed people who had finally found freedom through sexual expression. Kramer and his alter ego Ned Weeks, did his best to talk to his friends, send out information, and get government assistance to convince the gay community of the real and present danger of the as yet unnamed plague that was being transmitted sexually. Kramer was met with resistance and anger from every side and it would take over four years before any of his efforts found success. Plot Synopsis The Normal Heart spans a period of three years from 1981-1984 and chronicles the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in New York City from the perspective of the protagonist, Ned Weeks. Ned is not an easy man to love or befriend. He challenges everyone’s viewpoints and is willing to speak and speak loudly, about unpopular issues. The play opens at a doctor’s office where four gay men wait to be seen by Dr. Emma Brookner. She is one of the few doctors willing to see and attempt to treat patients who come to her with the varied and bizarre symptoms with which AIDS first presents. By the end of the first scene, two of the four men are diagnosed positive for the disease. The other two men are worried about possibly being carriers of the disease. (This bears repeating: It is important to note that the disease is so new it doesn’t have a name yet.) Ned and a few others found a group to help spread awareness of this new and deadly disease. Ned butts heads with the board of directors frequently because the board wishes to focus on helping those already infected and in trouble while Ned wants to push ideas that may prevent the spread of the disease - namely, abstinence. Ned’s ideas are distinctly unpopular and his personality renders him incapable of winning anyone to his side. Even his partner, Felix, a writer for the New York Times is reluctant to write anything having to do with this supposed homosexual disease that only seems to affect gays and junkies. Ned and his group attempt to meet with the governor of New York several times with no success. In the meantime, the number of people diagnosed and deceased from the disease begins to rise exponentially. Ned wonders if any help is ever going to come from the government and strikes out on his own to go on radio and TV to spread awareness. His actions eventually lead the group he created to force him out. The board of directors does not support his insistence on having the word â€Å"Gay† on the letterhead or return address on mailings. They do not want him doing any interviews (since he wasn’t voted president) and they do not want Ned as the main voice speaking out for the gay community. He is forced out and goes home to help his partner, Felix, now in the final stages of the disease. Production Details Setting: New York City The stage is meant to be â€Å"whitewashed† with statistics about the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic written in plain black lettering for the audience to read. Notes about what statistics were used in the original production can be found in the script published by the New American Library. Time: 1981-1984 Cast Size: This play can accommodate 14 actors. Male Characters: 13 Female Characters: 1 Roles Ned Weeks is difficult to get along with and love. His ideas are ahead of his time. Dr. Emma Brookner is one of the first doctors to treat the new and nameless disease infecting the gay community. She is under-appreciated in her field and her advice and prevention ideas are unpopular. The character of Dr. Emma Brookner is confined to a wheelchair due to a childhood bout of polio. This wheelchair, along with her illness, is a subject of discussion in the  dialogue of the play and the actress playing her must remain seated in the wheelchair the entire production. The character of Dr. Emma Brookner is based on the real-life doctor Dr. Linda Laubenstein who was one of the first doctors to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. Bruce Niles is the handsome president of the support group Ned helped found. He is unwilling to come out of the closet at work and refuses to do any interview that might out him as a gay man. He is terrified he may be a carrier of the disease as so many of his partners have been infected and died. Felix Turner is Ned’s partner. He is a writer for the fashion and food sections of the New York Times  but is still reluctant to write anything to publicize the disease even after he is infected. Ben Weeks is Ned’s brother. Ben swears he supports Ned’s lifestyle, but his actions often betray an underlying uneasiness with his brother’s homosexuality. Smaller Roles David Tommy Boatwright Craig Donner Mickey Marcus Hiram Keebler Grady Examining Doctor Orderly Orderly Content Issues: Language, sex, death, graphic details about the end stages of AIDS Resources Samuel French holds the production rights for The Normal Heart. In 2014, HBO released a movie of the same name.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Battle of Antietam in the American Civil War

Battle of Antietam in the American Civil War The Battle of Antietam was fought September 17, 1862, during the American Civil War (1861-1865). In the wake of his stunning victory at the Second Battle of Manassas in late August 1862, General Robert E. Lee began moving north into Maryland with the goal of obtaining supplies and cutting the rail links to Washington. This move was endorsed by Confederate President Jefferson Davis who believed that a victory on Northern soil would increase the likelihood of recognition from Britain and France. Crossing the Potomac, Lee was slowly pursued by Major General George B. McClellan who had recently been reinstated to overall command of Union forces in the area. Armies Commanders Union Major General George B. McClellan87,000 men Confederate General Robert E. Lee45,000 men Battle of Antietam - Advancing to Contact Lees campaign was soon compromised when Union forces found a copy of Special Order 191 which laid out his movements and showed that his army was split into several smaller contingents. Written on September 9, a copy of the order was found at the Best Farm south of Frederick, MD by Corporal Barton W. Mitchell of the 27th Indiana Volunteers.   Addressed to Major General D.H. Hill, the document was wrapped around three cigars and caught Mitchells eye as it lay in the grass. Quickly passed up the Union chain of command and recognized as authentic, it soon arrived at McClellans headquarters.   Assessing the information, the Union commander commented, Here is a paper with which, if I cannot whip Bobby Lee, I will be willing to go home.   Despite the time-sensitive nature of the intelligence contained in Special Order 191, McClellan displayed his characteristic slowness and hesitated before acting on this critical information. While Confederate troops under Major General Thomas Stonewall Jackson were capturing Harpers Ferry, McClellan pressed west and engaged Lees men in the passes through the mountains. In the resulting Battle of South Mountain on September 14, McClellans men attacked the out-numbered Confederate defenders at Foxs, Turners, and Cramptons Gaps.   Though the gaps were taken, fighting lasted through the day and bought time for Lee to order his army to reconcentrate at Sharpsburg. McClellans Plan Bringing his men together behind Antietam Creek, Lee was in a precarious position with the Potomac at his back and only Botelers Ford to the southwest at Shepherdstown as an escape route. On September 15, when the lead Union divisions were sighted, Lee only had 18,000 men at Sharpsburg. By that evening, much of the Union army had arrived. Though an immediate attack on September 16 likely would have overwhelmed the scrambling Lee, the ever-cautious McClellan, who believed Confederate forces to number around 100,000, did not begin probing the Confederate lines until late that afternoon. This delay allowed Lee to bring his army together, though some units were still en route. Based on the intelligence gathered on the 16th, McClellan decided to open the battle the next day by attacking from the north as this would allow his men to cross the creek at the undefended upper bridge. The assault was to be mounted by two corps with an additional two waiting in reserve. This attack would be supported by a diversionary attack by Major General Ambrose Burnsides IX Corps against the lower bridge south of Sharpsburg. Should the assaults proved successful, McClellan intended to attack with his reserves over the middle bridge against the Confederate center. Union intentions became clear on the evening of September 16, when Major General Joseph Hookers I Corps skirmished with Lees men in the East Woods north of town. As a result, Lee, who had placed Jacksons men on his left and Major General James Longstreets on the right, shifted troops to meet the anticipated threat (Map). The Fighting Begins in the North Around 5:30 AM on September 17, Hooker attacked down the Hagerstown Turnpike with the goal of capturing the Dunker Church, a small building on a plateau to the south. Encountering Jacksons men, brutal fighting began in the Miller Cornfield and the East Woods. A bloody stalemate ensued as the outnumbered Confederates held and mounted effective counterattacks. Adding Brigadier General Abner Doubledays division into the fight, Hookers troops began to push the enemy back. With Jacksons line near collapse, reinforcements arrived around 7:00 AM as Lee stripped his lines elsewhere of men. Counterattacking, they drove Hooker back and the Union troops were forced to cede the Cornfield and West Woods. Badly bloodied, Hooker called for aid from Major General Joseph K. Mansfields XII Corps. Advancing in columns of companies, XII Corps was hammered by Confederate artillery during their approach and Mansfield was mortally wounded by a sniper. With Brigadier General Alpheus Williams in command, XII Corps renewed the assault. While one division was halted by enemy fire, Brigadier General George S. Greenes men were able to break through and reach the Dunker Church (Map). While Greenes men came under heavy fire from the West Woods, Hooker was wounded as he tried to rally men to exploit the success. With no support arriving, Greene was forced to pull back. In an effort to force the situation above Sharpsburg, Major General Edwin V. Sumner was directed to contribute two divisions from his II Corps to the fight. Advancing with Major General John Sedgwicks division, Sumner lost contact with Brigadier General William Frenchs division before leading a rash attack into the West Woods. Quickly taken under fire on three sides, Sedgwicks men were forced to retreat (Map). Attacks in the Center By mid-day, fighting in the north quieted as Union forces held the East Woods and the Confederates the West Woods. Having lost Sumner, French spotted elements of Major General D.H. Hills division to the south. Though only numbering 2,500 men and tired from fighting earlier in the day, they were in a strong position along a sunken road. Around 9:30 AM, French began a series of three brigade-sized attacks on Hill. These failed in succession as Hills troops held. Sensing danger, Lee committed his final reserve division, led by Major General Richard H. Anderson, to the fight. A fourth Union assault saw the famed Irish Brigade storm forward with its green flags flying and Father William Corby shouting words of conditional absolution.   The stalemate was finally broken when elements of Brigadier General John C. Caldwells brigade succeeded in turning the Confederate right. Taking a knoll that overlooked the road, Union soldiers were able to fire down the Confederate lines and force the defenders to retreat. A brief Union pursuit was halted by Confederate counterattacks. As the scene quieted around 1:00 PM, a great gap had been opened in Lees lines. McClellan, believing that Lee had over 100,000 men, repeatedly refused to commit the over 25,000 men he had in reserve to exploiting the breakthrough despite the fact that Major General William Franklins VI Corps was in position. As a result, the opportunity was lost (Map). Blundering in the South In the south, Burnside, angered by command rearrangements, did not begin moving until around 10:30 AM. As a result, many of the Confederate troops that had originally been facing him were withdrawn to block the other Union attacks. Tasked with crossing the Antietam to support Hookers actions, Burnside was in position to cut off Lees retreat route to Botelers Ford. Ignoring the fact that the creek was fordable at several points, he focused on taking Rohrbachs Bridge while dispatching additional troops downstream to Snavelys Ford (Map) Defended by 400 men and two artillery batteries atop a bluff on the western shore, the bridge became Burnsides fixation as repeated attempts to storm it failed. Finally taken around 1:00 PM, the bridge became a bottleneck which slowed Burnside advance for two hours. The repeated delays permitted Lee to shift troops south to meet the threat. They were supported by the arrival of Major General A.P. Hills division from Harpers Ferry. Attacking Burnside, they shattered his flank. Though possessing greater numbers, Burnside lost his nerve and fell back to the bridge. By 5:30 PM, the fighting had ended. Aftermath of the Battle of Antietam The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single day in American military history. Union losses numbered 2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, and 753 captured/missing while the Confederates suffered 1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, and 1,018 captured/missing. The next day Lee prepared for another Union attack, but McClellan, still believing he was out-numbered did nothing. Eager to escape, Lee crossed the Potomac back into Virginia. A strategic victory, Antietam allowed President Abraham Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation  which freed slaves in Confederate territory. Remaining idle at Antietam until late October, despite requests from the War Department to pursue Lee, McClellan was removed command on November 5 and replaced by Burnside two days later. Selected Sources CWSAC Battle Summaries: AntietamAntietam on the Web

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Matthew Shepard Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Matthew Shepard - Essay Example This paper examines the murder of Matthew Shepard with respect to the circumstances leading to his death and his legacy. Alongside his younger brother, Shepard led a normal childhood attending school in Wyoming since his freshman to junior years. Shepard completed his education at The American School, Switzerland after his parents moved to the Saudi Aramco Residential Camp in Dhahran owing to his father's work. His experience abroad largely influenced his desire to travel, which led to an unfortunate incident during a school tour to Morocco where he was beaten and raped. This ordeal triggered a bout of depression and panic attacks that are attributed to his involvement with drugs during college. Shepard attended college in Casper, Wyoming to major in political science where his interest in politics sought him a position as a student representative at the Wyoming Environmental Council. Friends and family described Shepard as an overly optimistic individual looking forward to new chall enges. In addition, he held great passion for equality and acceptance as demonstrated in his roles at the community theatre and thus, was very approachable (â€Å"Matthew’s Story†). The tragic events that transpired shortly after midnight on October 7, 1998 followed the conclusion of a Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Association (LGBTA). The organization comprised mostly of university students, but welcomed the indulgence of staff members as well as the townspeople. In spite of a low attendance during its meetings, the association’s email list was illustrated as a long one. The meeting on the night of October 6 was meant to organize last-minute details of the Gay Awareness Week slated for the following week. The association’s chair, Jim Osborn, had been attacked before the meeting where he described the events to fellow members and asked them to be vigilant. LGBTA traditions involve late night coffee breaks before adjournment. Shepard visited a lo cal bar where he was approached by Aaron McKinney and Russell Henderson who offered him a ride home. However, events took a dramatic turn after the two drove to a rural area and proceeded to rob, bind Shepard to a fence, and whip him with the butt of .357 Magnum in their possession. He suffered had severe brainstem damages, fractures on his head, and numerous lacerations on his face and neck. The combination of these injuries incapacitated his body’s ability to control the heart rate, temperature among other vital functions. Shepard was discovered over 12 hours later by cyclist who perceived his bound composure and comatose state as a scarecrow (Thernstrom). Found in a near death state, doctors described his condition as too severe to risk an operation and as such, Shepard was placed on life support. Meanwhile, the brutal attack attracted the attention of local, national, and later international media shaping the calls for legislations to include the sexual minorities to the list of protected individuals by the law. Shepard was pronounced dead about a week later with his family by his side at the hospital. All the while, Laramie authorities investigating the heinous crime sought to retrace the last events of Shepard’s life McKinney and Henderson were arrest after they were found in possession of Shepard’

Friday, October 18, 2019

What are the main features of British conservatism Essay

What are the main features of British conservatism - Essay Example British conservatism takes its roots in philosophical ideas and concepts of Edmund Burke. British conservatism has a great impart on other world countries and their economic, political and cultural life. The British conservatism reflects the interests of rural land owning class and protects the Monarchy. The main values of British conservatives are the Angelical Church, family and property. Thus, during 1980s there has been a great shift towards free-market and liberal economic policies.Edmund Burke is transformed from a Whig into the crowning embodiment of everything that is valuable in conservative thought. Nineteenth-century conservatives, discouraged by the young Burke's support of causes such as Catholic emancipation, looked elsewhere for their ideological antecedents. There were, moreover, other writers (John Reeves, for instance) who elaborated a genuine Tory response to the ideas associated with the French Revolution. Burke has become the principal occupant of the Tory (Viere ck, 2005). Conservatives have long believed that the operation of this 'second nature' serves to protect a minority from many of the frailties which commonly afflict people (Viereck, 2005). The argument, which took root in the relatively fixed hierarchy of a predominantly agrarian society, is that those born into a elite can, in an unusual degree, acquire knowledge and wisdom, cultivate taste and virtue, and engage in civilized conversation, as well as being imbued from an early age with the responsibilities of public service. They are therefore less likely to be corrupted by power than those untrained in its exercise (Viereck, 2005). British conservatives espouse certain virtues or characteristics: prudence, justice, wisdom, moderation, self-discipline, frugality, industry, piety, honesty, obedience to and respect for authority, duty. Two other important aspects of conservatism are its anti-speculative, anti-theoretical stance and its espousal of some form of aristocracy. Political and social theory is even a sign of an ill-conducted state (Viereck, 2005). The conservative, then, tends to mistrust theoretical answers to problems, preferring the test of time and history. The conservative tends also to mistrust intellectuals, especially liberal and radical ones. Conservatism is a set of political, economic, religious, educational, and other social beliefs characterized by emphasis on the status quo and social stability, religion and morality, liberty and freedom, the natural inequality of men, the uncertainty of progress, and the weakness of human reason" (Viereck 2005, p. 76). For British conservatives, more important is the conservative's position on liberty and equality. Liberty is insisted upon; equality, however, does not exist nor can it exist. As Burke (1955) said, with his customary eloquence, levelers, acting for equality, change and pervert the natural order of things: "In this you think you are combating prejudice, but you are at war with nature" (Burke 1955, p. 56 cited Stanlis 2000, p. 82). This is perhaps the single most significant difference between the conservative and the modern liberal and the socialist. Modern conservatives strongly and positively prize freedom, as do liberals, and they acquiesce to policies and programs of equality because it is necessary or politically expedient to do so. if they bow at all, to what they see as a powerful contemporary force. It may even be said that modern liberals actively espouse equality, whereas modern conservatives actively espouse freedom and liberty and leave equality to liberals (Gamble, 1995). Less remarkable are the ideas of the modern right, for they have long been the stock-in-trade of free-market Conservatives. Those who now favour an enterprise culture share with earlier individualists a fear of creeping socialism, a conviction that the poor benefit from the wealth created by the rich, a belief that welfare coddling erodes self-reliance and places unfair burdens on the more competent members of

Why is it said that power relationship in organisations entail a Essay

Why is it said that power relationship in organisations entail a Mutual Dependency Provide examples to illustrate - Essay Example While interdependednce of the power equation began primarily in terms of socialiogy (Emerson 1962), it soon came to be very instrumental in the organizational setups across the developed world. It has now been established without doubt that power is central to organizational structure (Hall 2002). Infact several sources of power have been established within organizations (Morgan 1986). These can broadly be classified as Formal authority or legitimate power- This refers to the common concept that leaders or people in the high ladders of hierarchy have authority and compliance on the part of the subordinates is mandatory. Expert power - This is power secured by the acquiring of skills and expertise in a field, that would be required by others. This is by far the most subjective base in the power model (Podsahoff and Schriesheim. 1985) Yet all these bases of power rely on interaction of groups with each other. While the benefits and disadvantages of each of these bases are still being researched, the fact that they all involve dependency and interrelationships are clear. The concept of interdependency of power is aptly described in the works of (Emerson 1962, 1964) It is vital to have an understanding of the distribution of power along both these axes. While it is relatively easy to grasp the power concept along the vertical axis, even simply by applying the model of power bases described above, power dependency along the horizontal axes is relatively harder to visualize. This however is not a reflection of its operational value in an organization.Hence the mutual dependency pattern is observed along both these axes, more obviously in the horizontal than in the vertical, but is present in both. Several examples of the power dependencies can be observed in an organization setting and we will now go on to have a look at some of them. Power dependency along the vertical axis, egs. University structures where students are clearly lower in the hierarchy ladder, provide a good example of interdependencies along the vertical axis. To a large extent students are responsible for the functioning (both financial andoperational) of universities. While the very existence of universities is with the idea of training and teaching students, it is impossible to conceive of universities without the teaching and management staff. Hence while students depend on teachers for learning, and to that extent are under the power of the teachers, the latter also depend on students for the very running of the institution which provides their livelihoods. In terms of enterprises, a

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Interpreter of Maladies, Symbols of Love Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Interpreter of Maladies, Symbols of Love - Essay Example The house triggers memories of the life they had together. It is a story of remembered and lost love. Shukumar and Shoba have taken to living separate lives in their own home. â€Å"He and Shoba had become experts at avoiding each other in their three bedroom house.† (Lahiri 1999, p7) This thought makes Shukumar remember how it was before. He used to look forward to the weekends, when they simply spent time together. They would look into each other’s eyes and reach for each other, before they went to sleep. Their home started as a place where the couple spent time together and loved each other. They were expecting to start a family there. As Shukumar is preparing the evening meal he remembers the time Shoba would take care of the cooking. â€Å"The pantry was always stocked with extra bottles of olive and corn oil.† (Lahiri 1999, p9) He thought about how Shoba would always go to the market to make sure they had enough food in their home. Boxes and jars of food filled the room to the point they thought grandchildren would enjoy the treats waiting there. When friends would come by she would cook grand meals that seemed like she was cooking the entire day. Now Shukumar did the cooking. He used recipes that Shoba had, with hand written notes stating the date the couple shared the meal. Shoba, at one time, nurtured her home with food and friends. She made sure that there was more than enough. During this time the neighborhood is experiencing scheduled blackouts. The dynamic of their relationship changes as they share secrets in the dark. â€Å"Something happened when the house was dark.† (Lahiri 1999, p23) They started to talk, after months of virtual silence. They open themselves up to each other, eventually confessing their biggest secrets. Shoba plans to move into her own apartment. Shukumar confesses that he held their son, something she didn’t get to do. He promised that he would never tell her because of his love for her, but the last few days show that he


THE EFFECT OF DRUGS ON PEOPLE WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER - Term Paper Example Depressive disorders impress the direction a persons head purposes. Bipolar disorder becomes by a lot of names: bipolar disorder, diseased person disorder, diseased person illness, bipolar temper disorder, and bipolar emotional disorder are medical phrases for the identical circumstance (Smith, 2009). Bipolar disorder is broadly classified addicted to four unlike categories: Bipolar I, Bipolar II, Cyclothymic Disorder, or Bipolar Disorder not Differently Determined. The health individuals distinguish the discipline into these four categories for the reason that the symptoms of bipolar disorder demonstrate up in a different ways as well as in dissimilar people. When doctors experience what kind somebody has, they be capable of tailor management to that persons particular demands (Guyol, 2006). The antidepressant medications which are almost frequently used to handle depressive disorders: are by and large divided into three groups these are tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and lithium. Lithium has and then for been the a good number effected choice for by bipolar disorder in addition to a number of outlines of returning, most important depression. On the other hand, further lately doctors have also been by means of anticonvulsants for bipolar disorder (Guyol, 2006). Your general practitioner be obliged to think your personal health times gone by and reply to medications in finding out what is most beneficial for you. Every now and then different medicines are tried, and occasionally the quantity must be improved to be successful. People are in practice of blocking medicine early which is not in thier favor indeed. It is significant to continue taking medicine till your doctor says to discontinue, yet if you must be aware of enhanced in advance. A number of medications are required to be stopped slowly but surely to provide your body time to regulate. For individuals with bipolar

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Interpreter of Maladies, Symbols of Love Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Interpreter of Maladies, Symbols of Love - Essay Example The house triggers memories of the life they had together. It is a story of remembered and lost love. Shukumar and Shoba have taken to living separate lives in their own home. â€Å"He and Shoba had become experts at avoiding each other in their three bedroom house.† (Lahiri 1999, p7) This thought makes Shukumar remember how it was before. He used to look forward to the weekends, when they simply spent time together. They would look into each other’s eyes and reach for each other, before they went to sleep. Their home started as a place where the couple spent time together and loved each other. They were expecting to start a family there. As Shukumar is preparing the evening meal he remembers the time Shoba would take care of the cooking. â€Å"The pantry was always stocked with extra bottles of olive and corn oil.† (Lahiri 1999, p9) He thought about how Shoba would always go to the market to make sure they had enough food in their home. Boxes and jars of food filled the room to the point they thought grandchildren would enjoy the treats waiting there. When friends would come by she would cook grand meals that seemed like she was cooking the entire day. Now Shukumar did the cooking. He used recipes that Shoba had, with hand written notes stating the date the couple shared the meal. Shoba, at one time, nurtured her home with food and friends. She made sure that there was more than enough. During this time the neighborhood is experiencing scheduled blackouts. The dynamic of their relationship changes as they share secrets in the dark. â€Å"Something happened when the house was dark.† (Lahiri 1999, p23) They started to talk, after months of virtual silence. They open themselves up to each other, eventually confessing their biggest secrets. Shoba plans to move into her own apartment. Shukumar confesses that he held their son, something she didn’t get to do. He promised that he would never tell her because of his love for her, but the last few days show that he

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Introduction to Business Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Introduction to Business Law - Essay Example In matters concerning offer and acceptance, communication is of paramount importance. In the given case, Eddie telephoned Adele on Monday to ask for quote for the delivery of 12 wild boar piglets to the Eagle Pub. This is not an offer. It is a mere inquiry and it does not amount to an offer. Adele informed Eddie that the piglets would cost ?1,100 each and would be delivered on Thursday morning at a cost of ?150. This is again just a piece of information and not an offer. Eddie was satisfied with the price but wanted the delivery to be made on Wednesday. From the facts, the conduct of Eddie is such that it can be construed that this was an offer. Adele promised to give an answer on the next morning via fax. She sent a fax next morning confirming that the delivery was possible on Wednesday and it would cost ?13,350 in total. According to the given facts, Eddie was not in his office on Tuesday morning. If the courts are convinced that the aforementioned offer by Eddie was a valid offer, his absence from his office on Tuesday morning would be immaterial. A question can be raised whether Adele’s fax’s communication to Jane was enough. It would also be immaterial. It is because of the establishment of ‘Postal Rule’. In Adams v Lindsell 1818 EWHC KB J59, the defendants offered the plaintiffs through a letter to sell some fleeces of wool and asked them to answer via post. The plaintiffs received the letter late due to misdirection but posted their acceptance right away. Before their acceptance could reach the defendants, the defendants contracted with another party to sell the wool. Almost a similar scenario was encountered in Henthorn v Fraser 1892 2 Ch 27. The courts, therefore, specified a definite time of acceptance via post. The acceptance of an offer would be deemed to have been made when the letter of acceptance is posted and is out of the power of the offeree. This rule can also be stretched to communications with fax. Adele’s acceptance was made when she sent the fax to Eddie’s office. It does not matter whether Eddie saw the fax or not. Since the offer was accepted, the object was legal, both parties had consideration and there was an intention to create legal relations, a contract had formed and was legally binding on both the parties. It had formed at the time when the acceptance was made. Eddie is wrong in his thinking that he owes nothing to Adele. His contract with Peter is a breach of contract with Adele. He can be sued for damages by Adele for his breach of contract. The damages would amount to a sum that puts Adele in such a financial position in which she would have been if there was no breach by Eddie. However, Adele would not be able to recover the loss of ?400. It is because the loss was too remote. In Hadley v Baxendale 1854 9 Exch 341, the defendant contracted to take the plaintiff’s mill shaft to London where it was to be used as a model to build a new one. Due to defendantà ¢â‚¬â„¢s fault, the shaft was returned late and it caused the plaintiff to lose profits. The plaintiff sued to recover damages for loss of profits. It was held that the loss caused was too remote and it could not have been recovered. Therefore, by the application of above case, Eddie would not have to compensate Adele for lost profits of ?400. Answer 2 In the given case, Adele went to Bambi Stores Ltd to purchase some animal feed. She was absolutely unalarmed and unwarned when she was hit by a fork-lift truck driven by

Monday, October 14, 2019

Vultures by Chinua Achebe and Night of the scorpion by Nissim Ezekie Essay Example for Free

Vultures by Chinua Achebe and Night of the scorpion by Nissim Ezekie Essay How is language and structure used within Vultures and one other poem to bring the message across to the reader? Vultures by Chinua Achebe and Night of the scorpion by Nissim Ezekie, both use lunguistic and structural techniques to relay the message being brought forward by the poem. Within Vultures we are presented with an active comparison between the evil of an human and the evil of a vulture. Similarly within Night of the scorpion we are also presented with an animal personifying evil bringing forward true feelings and beliefs of an community. Within Vultures Achebe uses Language in order to carry the message being brough forward, pathetic falacy is used in order to create a atmosphere for the reader, this is shown through greyness..drizzle this creates an eiry atmosphere creating a sense of danger fior the reader, this enhances the message being brough forward by this poem; pathetic falacy is also used within Night of the Scorpion for a similar purpose, the fact that the steady rain is present it shows it is a tense atmosphere for the reader foreshadowing upcoming events in the poem. In addition through Ezekiel using the word night at the beginning of the poem this adds to the atmosphere as at this time is mostly associated with unawarness and also a time of fears coming to life, this may alert the reader adding to affect brought forward by the upcoming pathectic falacy, thus amplifying the message being brough forward to the reader. Achebe describes the vultures in a gastly way with them holding features such as gross feathers/ telescopic eyes and with the vultures picking eyesof corpse this disgusts the reader, with it creating a horrendous images in the reader mind, On the otherhand the reader is giving another disgusting description of the comandent this is shown through him being described with having: hairy nostrilsstench of human roast clinging to him this also creates a negetive image in the readers imagnation creating links between the two showing the similarities, the use of this increases the readers understanding if the message. Within Night of the scorpion the repetition of the word they said also amplifys the message as it shows the mothers son is not being heard and the fact that the mother is in the chentre shows the sons annoyaance towards the community showing they are shutting him out, this showcks the reader as as his mom is on the death bed he is sill not given the chance to see her. The structure within Night of the Scorpion also holds a great importance in order to relay the message being brough forward, the structure is free verse which backs up the point that was stated above the use of free verse shows the lack of structure within the communuty and how their believes can clash under stressfull circumstances, this signifficantly contributes to the message being brough forward to the reader. Vultures is also written in free verse with the vultures and the comandant being on seoerates sides this symobolises the diffeence in their appearences ; aksi their similarities in the way they act with them bith commiting fellenous acts, however the vultures do this for survuval whereas the comandent has a choice in the matter but still shooses to do this. The use of all these linguistic and structural techniques used by the pots make the poems messages clearly understood by the reader.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Analysis of Word Processing Programmes

Analysis of Word Processing Programmes WORD PROCESSING:Â  AN INTRODUCTION Word Processing is a computer application which allows a document to be created, edited, stored and printed. By clicking within any document with your mouse you can add or delete content and graphics. There are several different types of Word processing programs. Microsoft Word is one of the most popular and frequently used applications. It is generally the best package to buy because it is part of Microsoft Office Suite, which includes PowerPoint and Excel; it is also cost effective and is easy and practical to use. [2] Text Manipulation is being able to change the appearance of the text in a word document using the Font Icons. These icons are; fonts, size, font styles and enhancement (such as colour). These changes can be done by highlighting specific text, whole paragraphs or the entire document and clicking on the appropriate icon in the tool bar. [3] Work Processing has a default writing style and size. In order to change either of these, click on the down arrow and different fonts will appear. Select the font desired. To the right of the font box, the size of the font can be selected and changed by using the down arrow and selecting the size suitable for the document you are working on. Sizes 10 and 12 are the most commonly used for letters and documents and larger sizes are used for headings.[4] The Font styles found in the toolbar are Italic, Bold, Underline, Strikethrough, Superscript and Subscript. Text effects, Highlight and font colour are also here. BOLD style can be applied by selecting the text to appear in bold and pressing the B button. Similarly, using the italics and underline button can change the appearance of the text. Colour can also be found here and used to enhance the appearance of the document. Formatting a document is the layout of a document. There are several applications that can help in doing this. Alignment Margins Spacing Indenting Layout Borders Headers Footers The Alignment of text in a document shows where the text sits in that document. Text can be aligned in several different ways. Left Alignment: This the default position in word processing where the text is lined up with the left edge of the page. It is often used for the date and address on letters. Right Alignment: the text is lined up with the right edge of the page. This can also be used for addressing letters. Centre Alignment: the text is placed in the middle of the document. This is used for headings, where centering is required. Justification Alignment: text is lined up with both left and right hand edges of the page. This layout is seen in newspapers.[5] To use Alignment on text, highlight the section to be aligned. To highlight the full document use Ctrl + A. Then click on the Home page; go to the Paragraph box and click on the alignment needed.[6] Using the arrow on the right hand corner of the paragraph box, alignment can be set manually also. Line spacing in Word Processing can be set as a single space between lines of text in a paragraph, to any appropriate space needed. The default space setting is 1.15, which makes text more readable. Go to Home in address bar. Click on the downward arrow. A list of options allows a line spacing value to be chosen. Specific spacing options can be chosen. Click on the downward arrow in the corner of the Paragraph box. The menu allows specific line-spacing values to be set from the Spacing area of the menu. The Multiple Line Spacing menu, along with At, allows spacing to be customised. Click ok when values are chosen.[7] Go to Mailings in the ribbon bar. Click on the Start Mail Merge arrow. Select Labels from the drop-down menu. Within the application that opens, choose the appropriate sized label and click ok. Â   Â   The label selected will appear in box. Go to Select Recipients and select from the drop-down menu that appears. Click on the appropriate line. This will link both labels and addresses. Ensure cursor is present in the first cell. Click on Insert Merge Field and insert each line of address. Click on Update Labels and this address will appear in each cell. Click on Preview Results to check addresses are correctly placed. To change the alignment of address, highlight all the cells; go to Tools Bar; click on Layout and choose appropriate alignment. Click on Finish Merge icon.[8] Tabs are used for lining up text. Set by placing the cursor on the ruler bar across the top of the page. Click at each point on the lower line where a tab is needed. The pre-set tabs will disappear and the tabs needed for the document are left. When the tab key is pressed, the cursor will move to the next tab point.[9] Tab stops can be set precisely to customise a document by using the Tabs dialog box. Go to Page Layout Click on the corner downward arrow in the Paragraph box. In the dropdown Menu, click on Tabs button. Set parameters in the Tab box: In Tab stop position, select location of Tab. In Alignment, select type of Tab stop. In Leader box select type needed. Click Set. Graphics is the display and manipulation of pictures in Word Processing. Word Processing allows pictures to be drawn or imported from several different sources; e.g., Online pictures, personal photos stored on the computer, Clipart, SmartArt, and Screenshots. Graphics are used to support text, to make it more interesting and to enliven the document.[10] Go to INSERT on the address bar. In the Illustrations box, graphics can be accessed from the different sources. To Access graphics from the Internet Go to Illustrations. Click on Online Pictures. Type in Search box required image. Select image and click Insert. [11] Tables in Word Processing are made-up of rows and columns. They are easy to create and using tables in Word Processing is made easy by the variety of features present which allows the user to present professional looking tables.[12] Creating a Table Place your cursor where you want the table to be. Go to INSERT in the address column. Click on downward arrow in Table box. Click on Insert Table Insert Table dialog box appears Put in parameters required Click ok. Table now appears in document[13] To increase the number of cells, rows and columns can be done with the click of a button. To add a row to a Table place your cursor in the cell above where you want the row to appear. Go to Table Tools click on Layout Click on Insert below To add a column, place the cursor in the column beside which you the column to appear. Go to Table Tools Click on Layout Click on Insert Right or Insert Left[14] File Handling and File Management File management and Handling is how data is organised on a computer system. By naming, storing and handling files logically, they can be retrieved easily and conveniently.[15] There are several functions in file management /handling that allow creating, deleting and maintaining files.[16] Folders Save Save As File Type; e.g. Word 2010, PDF Folders To create a folder Right click on the desktop Click on New in the dropdown menu Name Folder Each Folder has a unique name. Sub folders can be create within a folder. Files are stored within folders. Save Save As The Save button is used when you are making changes to an existing document and you want to save the changes you make. Save As is used when you have saving information into a file. [1] accessed 28/09/16 [2] [3] Creative Training, Word Processing QQI level 5 accessed 29/09/16 [4] accessed 30/09/16 5 Creative Training, Word Processing, QQ1 Level 5 accessed 30/09/16 [5] Creative Training, Word Processing, QQI Level 5 accessed 04/10/2016 [6] [7] Creative Training, Word Processing, QQI Level accessed 06/10/16 [8] Creative Training, Word Processing, QQI Level 5 accessed 05/10/16 [9] accessed 05/10/16 [10] accessed 05/10/16 [11] [12] accessed 06/10/16 [13] Creative Training, Word Processing, QQI Level 5 accessed 06/10/16 [14] Creative Training, Word Processing, QQI Level 5 accessed 07/10/16 [15] [16]

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Timothy Leary Essay -- essays research papers fc

Timothy Leary "Turn on, tune in, drop out." That saying has turned into the slogan of Timothy Leary’s mind-expanding movement. Although a graduate of both West-Point and Berkley, and a Harvard professor, these were not his greatest lifetime achievements. Throughout his publicized life, he became the spokesperson of the psychedelic age. His devotion to the belief that LSD and marijuana were gateways to enlightenment resulted in a new church, numerous prison sentences, and a following of both celebrities and the general public. When people think of Timothy Leary their immediate response is "Turn on, tune in, drop out," his trademark line, although the meaning of it has often been misinterpreted. Playboy Magazine had thought that his message was advocating, "getting high and dropping out of school," (Marwick 311). When asked by the magazine to explain the meaning of the phrase he responded, " ‘Turn on’ me ans to contact the ancient energies and wisdoms that are built into your nervous system. They provide unspeakable pleasure and revelation. ‘Tune in’ means to harness and communicate these new perspectives in a harmonious dance with the external world. ‘Drop out’ means to detach yourself from the tribal game." (Marwick 312). This was not the first time his methods were questioned. Leary was first publicly noticed, and criticized by then fellow Harvard professors, for his interest in LSD when he and friend, Robert Alpert, wrote an article for the Bulletin of Atomic Scientist. In the article they described a circumstance that in the event of war, the Russians might try to lace the American water supply with LSD. Then, when everybody in America is stoned, the Russians would seize power. They explained that in order to prevent the scenario from happening, everyone should take a dose of LSD so they can get used to the effects (Sterns 278). Although the a rticle shocked the Harvard staff, it didn’t cause him to get fired. Leary was dismissed from Harvard in 1962, only four years after he began teaching there. Leary had experimented with psilocybin, a mind-altering chemical, on his own and the university repeatedly asked him to stop, he refused (Brash 139). Although it angered university 2. authorities, they couldn’t do anything more about the subject since it was a legal substance. While conducti... ...eary was dying of cancer and believed that death should be a happy occasion rather than a sad one. His last words were "Why not?" and after his death his long time friend, John Barlow, wrote, "Timothy Leary died unashamed and having, as usual, a great time. He made good on his promise to ‘give death a better name or die trying.’ " (Marwick 345). Timothy Leary has influenced many people throughout his life by his contribution to society. Whether he advocated the use of drugs or not doesn’t make a difference, although the are what stuck out in people’s minds. The greater message that his life taught was the will of man, and the lengths a person will go to in order to get the point across to the masses. His focus was not money, he gave that up when he lost his job at Harvard, but in his belief that he was right. He truly believed that LSD could enlighten people, and his intentions were to help. Bibliography Works Cited Brash, Sarah. Turbulent Years The 60s. Alexandra: Time-Life Books Inc., 1998. Marwick, Arthur. The Sixties. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Sterns, Jane And Michael. Encyclopedia of Pop Culture. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Nineteenth Century Short Stories Essay

The highly censored and controlled Victorian society contained a large contrast, with a small proportion of the rich-elite, composed often of aristocrats and judges. The majority however, was extremely poor, often struggling to provide for their families let alone themselves. In the strictness of life at the time, many people delved into stories of the more humorous and less controlled sides of life. Authors did not put their characters into regular, day-to-day scenarios that would seem rather dull and boring, but created light, dramatically complex narratives that involved people in desperate situations, such as the man that must choose between three women hiding in his truck. In the first story, ‘Tony Kytes, Arch Deceiver’ by Thomas Hardy, a young man is in a situation in which he must choose a woman to marry, being the only attractive young man in this village, he has a lot of control and authority over these women. Throughout the story, the women are portrayed as gullible and desperate, as we see in the climax of the story in which three different women are hiding in the same car. In the end of the story, Tony loses control and seems to be less in command of the situation and becomes manipulated by the three women who are competing with each other in order to secure Tony as a husband. The women finally find out that they have all been promised to become Tony’s wife, and Unity and Hannah leave, pretending to be strong women who are unaffected by this heart-breaking situation. Tony is left with Milly, to which he proclaims ‘†¦It does seem as if fate had ordained it that it should be you and I, or nobody, and what must be must be†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ This line is very important as it links in with the theme of fate which applies to the other stories. The next story is called ‘Old Mrs. Chundle’ by Thomas Hardy. It portrays and old woman who is very separated from the rest of her village. The author states that she has never even ventured past the next town from hers. One day, Mrs. Chundle is visited by the Curate who asks her for some food. Mrs. Chundle refuses to sit next to the curate, saying ‘Oh, faith, I don’t want to eat with my betters- not I’. The Curate persuades Mrs. Chundle to go to church; she tells him that she is nearly deaf and would not be able to hear anything. Throughout the rest of the story, we see the curate create various devices in an attempt to get Mrs. Chundle to go to church. However, Mrs. Chundle is forced to rely on the Curate until he eventually leads her to her death when she runs up the hill to get to church on time. The final story, the Stolen Bacillus by H.G Wells, tells us the story of an anarchist who visits a bacteriologist. During the visit, the sheer potential of the destruction caused by the bacteria that he witnesses sparks his anarchy, impelling the young man to steal a batch of the perceptually dangerous bacteria, thinking that he could destroy an entire city with its unfathomable power. The scientist and his wife pursue the man through the streets of London in informal clothes, onlooker cheer thinking this is fast fuelled race, this also gives us the impression that this bacteria is very dangerous. The anarchist stops and the scientists think it’s too late. The final twist in the ending of the story is that the man drinks the virus thinking that he has now gained the ability to destroy the entire country through the power of cholera, but instead he drank a special bacterium that is used to turn monkeys blue. In the same story, the Anarchist is portrayed as a confused but clever man that wants to cause as much devastation and destruction as possible to society. He quotes ‘†¦.those mere atomies, might multiply and devastate a city! Wonderful!’ From this you can clearly see that this man’s objectives are to cause as much destruction as possible to the city. A ‘†¦.slight gleam of satisfaction appeared on the pale man†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ after he at living cultures of this bacterium, with the author stating that ‘†¦morbid pleasure†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ appeared from the man as he was inspected by the scientist. This makes the reader aware that this man has not come to learn about bacteria, but rather to find out how to use them to cause devastation. The way the bacteriologist is portrayed is also important, as he believes that it is a burden to keep that bacteria once muttering, ‘†¦..I am obliged to †¦.’ .The message verbalised by the author is that people should be judged by their appearance if you do not know them and that we should never underestimate the power of nature. The main character in Old Mrs. Chundle is clearly old Mrs. Chundle. Mrs Chundle is an old, deaf woman, who is clearly quite happy living on her own, she has never ventured past the nearest town in her whole life. One day, she is visited by the curate who asks her for some food. It is then revealed to us that she is nearly deaf and has trouble hearing people. The curator asks her why she does not go to church and she explains her condition. Throughout the story, the Curate attempts to help her by thinking of various ways she would be able to hear the church services. In the end of the story, Mrs. Chundle is let down by the curate who promised to come over and read to her. The main character in Thomas Hardy’s story is obviously Tony Kytes, he is described as ‘†¦ ‘Twas a little, round, firm, tight face, with a seam here and there left by smallpox’ but this was not enough to ‘†¦hurt his looks in a woman’s eye†¦.’ He was the ‘women’s favourite’ and loved all of them. He was highly involved with ‘all the rest of the scandalous stuff’ and told to us by the author. The message from the story is clearly ‘Looks can be deceiving’ and that you cannot change fate. The relationships between the author and narrator’s attitudes towards women in ‘arch deceiver’ clearly shows us that at the time, mean were quite sexist towards women and believed that all of them were desperate and would do anything to get married, such as in this story where they fight over an clearly dishonest man. The main relationship in Old Mrs. Chundle is the relationship between here and the curate. It is a very strange relationship due to the fact that as soon as the curate came into Mrs. Chundle’s life she dies. However we can see that the curate has helped Mrs. Chundle die happy as she managed to hear the word of God. All of the stories I have mentioned contain unexpected endings which add humour or sadness into the stories. Thomas Hardy’s novels both contain very different endings. In ‘Arch Deceiver’, the ending was expected as we knew that nothing good would happen at the end of the situation that Tony was in. After a large argument between Tony and the three women at his house, the women leave and Milly is left to marry Tony. He tries to worm his way out of the situation that he has gotten himself in by saying that it was fate that they would get married. In his other story, Old Mrs. Chundle, the Curate breaks a promise he had made with the rector saying â€Å"She’s probably forgotten by this time that you promised.† The Curate eventually goes so Mrs. Chundle doesn’t get angry with him, and finds out that she has died. In the story by H.G. Wells, the twist would have seemed humorous at the time but the overall effect of the story has decreased over time. The twist is that after the anarchist drank the bacteria, thinking that he would cause immeasurable devastation, he begins to turn blue. The twist is not very effective and is quite stupid, which is quite unexpected from an author as great as H.G Wells. In conclusion, I believe that the narrative with the best use of drama through language was the stolen bacillus, this is because Wells can clearly describe to us what is happening, and it is told in a way which sounds realistic. The story with the best relationships is Old Mrs. Chundle as we are told the story of an old woman who died as soon as there were new influences in her life. The story with the best ending is the Stolen Baccilus as it was the most unexpected. Wells uses language in such a way that makes you believe that the anarchist would succeed, although the ending is stupid, it was the most surprising and contained a strange twist.