Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Benchmarking in the Investment and Banking Sector

Benchmarking involves comparing a business operations and performance ranking of a company or industry with top performers from other industries. Factors weighed include quality, time, and value. After benchmarking a company or the industry players need to improve from learning by doing things effectively and efficiently.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Benchmarking in the Investment and Banking Sector specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More My industry is the investment and banking sector. Over the years the investment and banking sector has been hit hard by many challenges which have threatened to tear the industry, even to an extent leading to the winding up of some of the industry players. The most recent scandals were pyramid schemes and scrupulous deals that have seen consumers loose their lifetime investments. Also banks have been hit by the global economic downturn which saw the closure of several banking halls. This has seen lose of consumer confidence in the industry. Many customers are trading cautiously in, scared of succumbing to any scandals. The industry needs put in place measures that regulate the investment companies or associations to avoid arise of any loopholes in the industry which could expose investors to any kind of threat of their funds. The industry should improve the customers’ confidence by offering secured means of investing and guaranteeing adequate returns (McNair, Kathleen Leibfried, 2004) The industry is vulnerable to changes in the market and needs to insulate itself from rapid changes occurring in the market, to ensure that their operations are not interrupted by changes in the market. For example, the global economic downturn saw the industry players affected adversely leading to negative effects in the market. Comparing the investment and banking industry with manufacturing industry, the manufacturing industry seems more dynamic and can absorb shock in the market easily. The management team in the banking sector should to identify the top companies or industries, where they undertake related processes, and compare the results of those targeted to its own performance to study how well the others fair and how they attain that (Damelio 1995).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For a company to appreciate the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of a particular benchmark in use, it has to look at how the practitioners of benchmarking have achieved their goals, the costs incurred or saved by the practice and the organizations insight of the process. Through benchmarking an organization can increase significantly on its supply-chain efficiency. Therefore organizations that use the benchmark techniques in their supply chains by comparing its performance against that of its competitors have typically reduced their expenses by 81 percen t. Thus those who use applicable bench marks have spent less on logistics of doing business than the median. In addition, applicable benchmarking has provided an upper advantage to companies in the market place. Also bench marking has resulted in an organization taking up other practices that result in improvement of operations such as use of, TQM, tactical planning and reengineering of their products (Pike, Neale, 2006). However there are adverse effects that may result in a company while it is benchmarking. If bench marking is poorly introduced and executed in an organization, it can result in waste of the organization’s financial and economic resources which would negatively affect its profitability at the end of the period. Therefore, though a company may introduce benchmarking in its operations it may result in negative results if not implemented in the right way making them very ineffective and costly on organization (CAMP 2006). Reference list Camp, R.C. (2006). Bench marking: The Search for Industry Best Practices That Lead to Superior Performance. MA: Productivity Press. McNair, C. J., Kathleen, H. Leibfried, H. (2004). Benchmarking: A Tool for Continuous Improvement. New York: John Wiley Sons. Damelio, R. (1995). The Basics of Benchmarking. MA: Productivity Press.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Benchmarking in the Investment and Banking Sector specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Pike, R. Neale, B. 2006. Corporate finance and investment: decisions strategies. New York: Financial Times Prentice Hall. This essay on Benchmarking in the Investment and Banking Sector was written and submitted by user Kayleigh Larsen to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Erasmus and Castiglione essays

Erasmus and Castiglione essays Religion and social acceptance played paramount roles in the Renaissance and the Reformation, each through different paths of idealism. Here we discover how two separate elements interact and become one in human fulfillment. The study of Erasmus and Castiglione, two individuals, that have so clearly shaped religion and society today, has truly been eye opening for me. As I read their works and try to analyze the elements that drive them forward, I see many attributes of myself within them, including spiritual soul searching, the desire for social acceptance and yes, vanity. I am stimulated as to how the two paths so clearly cross and eventually become one. Erasmus was a key element in Northern Christian Humanism, which was more concerned with theology, creating a movement for moral and religious reform. The thread of religion is deeply seated in the Renaissance but, Castiglione was better known as the arbiter of aristocratic manners. He demanded, that the preservance of composure and self-control must be maintained under all circumstances (Pegasokseen). Erasmus was one of the greatest scholars of all time and worked diligently in the defense of cultural language, the revision of Christian traditions and the renewal of the educational system. He was known as the Prince of Humanists (Ciger). Castiglione, on the other hand, focused on the behavioral attributes; he studied the changes in the late medieval culture and effectively created a guide book for the elite to gain attention and favor. We are the sum of our perceptions, but as I see these two, I look at the many facets that shape our lives. Erasmus, in the spiritual light of better understanding our faith, and the need for higher education. Castiglione, in the realism of the here and now, the need for social acceptance, and affirmation. The need for balance in our lives is extremely important, and when you combine realism with spi...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Decision Making Process Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 89

Decision Making Process - Case Study Example They are, therefore, forced to react negatively to all other future events that seem to centralize the controls even further. They then assume the negative reaction to most of such attempts when anything becomes controversial in the District. To support my conclusion here, we find that, in the case study, almost all principals spoke in opposition to what the business administrator recommended. By saying that through the elimination of the funds, the District want to have another way of centralizing administration, they mean that the District has had other ways earlier, and this is just another such ways. It, therefore, shows that they are now trying not to allow the district continue centralizing the controls anymore. The principals also comment that every time they try to turn around, things become centralized in the district. It means, therefore, that, they already have no trust in the district administration and will most of the time not agree with any of their steps to centralize controls. When administrative functions are divided into organizational divisions, it becomes easy for the administration to have a clear control over the two divisions distinctively. First, there is a division of labor manifested, therefore, only specialized professionals in a given division are selected to work there to provide good results (Shivendu & Dasgupta, 2012) (page #2 lines #1-4). Therefore, while dividing the administrative functions into organizations, one is simply dividing the work to be done within those small divisions or departments. The work and responsibilities that will be assigned to individuals or departments will be based on the professional qualification as well as the experience of the workforce in that department. The divisions also cluster jobs into units, hence making it easy for control, monitoring and evaluation purposes.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Operations and Logistics Management Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Operations and Logistics Management - Case Study Example It seeks to achieve these objectives by facilitating a culture where teams of employees are sufficiently motivated to work together to revisit working practices in an effort to monitor their performance and make changes for the better. Operations management is an area of business where one is concerned with the production of his/her goods and the services s/he provides. Operations management focuses on carefully managing the processes to produce and distribute products and services. Usually, small businesses don't talk about "operations management", but they carry out the activities that management schools typically associate with the phrase "operations management." Major, overall activities often include product creation, development, production and distribution. (These activities are also associated with Product and Service Management. However product management is usually in regard to one or more closely related product - that is, a product line. Operations management is in regard to all operations within the organization.). Related activities include managing purchases, inventory control, quality control, storage, logistics and evaluations. The best option for Organization A is the Material Requirements Planning (MRP). The MRP is a software-based production planning and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing processes. An MRP system is intended to simultaneously meet 3 objectives: ensure materials and products are available for production and delivery to customers. maintain the lowest possible level of inventory. plan manufacturing activities, delivery schedules and purchasing activities. All manufacturing organizations, whatever their products face the same daily practical problem - that customers want products to be available in a shorter time than it takes to make them. Companies need to control the types and quantities of materials they purchase, plan which products are to be produced and in what quantities and ensure that they are able to meet current and future customer demand, all at the lowest possible cost. If a company purchases insufficient quantities of an item used in manufacturing, or the wrong item, they may be unable to meet contracts to supply products by the agreed date. If a company purchases excessive quantities of an item, money is being wasted - the excess quantity ties up cash while it remains as stock and may never even be used at all. This is a particularly severe problem for food manufacturers and companies with very short product life cycles. However, some purchased items will have a minimum quantity that must be met, therefore, purchasing e xcess is necessary. (http://www.me.utexas.edu) MRP is used by many organizations as a tool to deal with these problems. This applies to items that are bought in and to sub-assemblies that go into more complex items. There are two kinds of output. Output 1 is the "Recommended Production Schedule" which lays out a detailed schedule of the required minimum start and completion dates, with quantities, for each step of the Routing and Bill Of Material required to satisfy the demand from the MPS. Output 2 is the

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Design Experiment Ecology - effect of acid rain on plat growth Assignment

Design Experiment Ecology - effect of acid rain on plat growth - Assignment Example These substances are highly toxic to the living world and directly affects plant and other small organisms thereby, indirectly influence the proliferation of other organisms as well. The present study is designed to understand the effect of acid on plant growth. The study requires 2-3 weeks. The amount of acid added to water, for watering the plant is inversely related to the growth of the plant, which is calculated as the height of the plant. Excess of acid adversely affects the physiology of the plant which should be displayed in the form of pigmentation of the plant, more yellow leaves should appear in the plant which is treated with higher acid concentration as compared to the plant treated with less concentration of acid and with tap water. Hence, survival of the plant is directly related to the concentration of the acid given to the plant. The process will also demonstrate the appropriate pH of water required for the plant growth. Make two acidic solutions with two different concentrations, using water and H2SO4. pH is measured with the help of a pH strip. Adjust the pH of one of the solutions as pH = 2 while adjust the pH of the other solution as pH = 4. Pour equal amount of water/ acid solution simultaneously in all the three sets, A, B and C. Plant A should be provided with an acidic solution of pH 2 and plant B should be provided with the acidic solution of pH 4 while plant C should be provided with same amount of tap water. Growth of the plants was monitored and recorded on a regular basis with the help of measuring tape. The experiment continued for two weeks and observations were recorded in the following table for the comparative analysis of the impact of acid on the growth of plants. Control plant, C was watered with tap water and its growth was also recorded in the following table- Acidification of rain-water occurs

Friday, November 15, 2019

Is Rawlss Critique Of Utilitarianism Fair Philosophy Essay

Is Rawlss Critique Of Utilitarianism Fair Philosophy Essay The question we are going to deal with immediately draw my attention; as Rawls work on justice not only turns out to be theoretically relevant, but even particular considering the time it was published, it results being determinant from a historic point of view. Indeed A theory of justice was written in 1971, in these years as we know cold war reached its climax and contrast between the Soviet Union and the United States was severe. These conflicts implied not only a political (and fortunately not military) conflict, but at its deepest layer a difference in ideology, beliefs, thought. As well known the soviet model had its roots in Karl Marxs (1818-1883) communist philosophy while the western countries found their attachment mostly in utilitarianism. These philosophies oppose in its assumptions and appear not to be compatible witch each other. What Rawls proposes us is an innovating solution to conjugate social justice and utilitarianism in an innovating if not revolutionary theory of justice. He is considered to be the father of the third way among a centralized economy and laissez-faire. As previously anticipated the theory of justice also has a fundamental theoretical value as it marks the turning point in some very important and discussed conceptual differences which became part of nowadays political agenda. Rawls famous theory of justice criticized utilitarianism at its roots. After a brief introduction about the topic of discussion, my attention is going to focus on the basic ideas of utilitarianism as it is the philosophical theory which opposes most to Rawls theory of justice. We will then analyze Rawls attack to utilitarian philosophy as explained in his book: A theory of justice. Furthermore we will place our attention on the reasons why Rawlss judges utilitarianism wrong, and on other arguments against it. John Rawlss thought John Rawls is widely considered one of the most innovative and influential thinker of the twentieth century. Put in Amartya Sens words:By far the most influential and I believe the most important theory of justice to be presented in this century has been John Rawls Justice as fairness (Sen, 1992:p. 75) He was born in 1921 in the city of Baltimore, made his studies in Princeton and Oxford, before becoming a professor in one of the most known universities of the United States: Harvard. He is mostly known through his famous book A theory of justice (1971). The philosopher claims that justice is the first requisite of social institutions, just in the same way as the pursuit of truth is the final aim of any philosophy. His basic claim is that as a theory a needs to be discarded or at least changed in its missing parts if it is not true, in the same way institutions or laws have to be abolished or reformed if they are not fair. He goes on saying that even if society as a whole might profit from certain institution, they cannot be accepted and left in place if even only one person gets an unfair treatment as a consequence of their operation. Each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override. For this reason justice denies that the loss of freedom for some is made right by a greater good shared by others. It does not allow that the sacrifices imposed on a few are outweighed by the larger sum of advantages enjoyed by many.( Rawls, John A Theory of Justice  (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press), 1971, p 3.) As he defined his idea about justice, he wanted to give a rational foundation to it. He wanted to ensure that his justice assumptions were rational and shared by all members of society. Given the fact that individuals are different and have different aims in life it is necessary to find some principle which could be agreed on by all members. The way by which people could find a general agreement is very well known in philosophy and social sciences as public law. What is being referred to is the idea of original position and veil of ignorance. Part of its great success is due to the fascinating representation given by the author. He imagines a so called original position in which the single individuals decide the rules which will govern society. What is crucial is the fact that they do this choice in absolute ignorance concerning some relevant information of their future lives in society. The agreement is so being made in a condition of a veil of ignorance. This avoids the fact that some which might be born in a very rich family would obviously be against high income taxes to transfer some wealth to the worse off. The poor one on the other hand would definitely welcome such taxes as they could profit from them. The people making the choice are thus presented as rational and not interested in others. No one could get an advantage from the choice of certain principles which would advantage a certain category, as they would not know which role they are going to have in society. To sum up we can say that the veil of ignorance has to exclude people from the knowledge of facts which would bring them to have conflicts. Al the parties are equal in this position, indeed everyone would have the same rights in proposing rules and accepting them. The outcome of this decision leads to a fair agreement because it is conducted in fair conditions. This is the reason why this theory is known as justice as fairness. He states that the philosopher which contributed most to the development of his theory has been Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), since Kants ethic is based on the personal choice of free, rational and equal individuals. Therefore he arrives to claim that the principles of justice are to be seen as categorical imperatives in the Kantian way. Indeed by categorical imperative Kant means these moral principles which are to be rationally respected and accepted from a free and rational individual. Opposed to these we find hypothetical imperatives which are the ones which aim at certain specific goals. Concerning the principles which have to be expected from the decision take under the veil of ignorance, we should not consider them as defined principles for actions but as general guide lines for practical political decisions. It is to be noticed that some critics might emerge at this point, authors like Sen criticized the fact that exactly these principles would emerge from the contracting under the veil of ignorance: The outcome might be a different one. The first principle states the following: Each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others. (Rawls, 1971) What is exactly meant as basic liberties has to be defined more precisely, indeed they are: a) The active and passive right to vote; the first refers to the possibility to choose a political actor according to our preferences (what is commonly understood as right to vote). The second one (passive right to vote) refers to the fact that we have the possibility to candidate for elections and possibility be elected. b) Liberty of conscience, which is basically the faculty to choose or decide by your own, your future life, your way of being and your own destiny. c) Freedom of speech and assembly, so the possibility to express your own ideas and make them public even if they do not fit and are not coherent with the current political situation and its majoritys ideas. The freedom of assembly indeed refers to the possibility to arrange political assemblies to discuss political and practical issues. d) Freedom to personal propriety, which is to be understood as the possibility to have the personal private propriety on your goods (although he states that the private propriety of means of production is not necessarily to be seen as a primary good). e) Freedom from arbitrary arrest, which means the fact that the public power has not the freedom to arbitrary (so without a reason), arrest individuals because they might oppose or disagree with the public power itself. The second principle: Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that (a) They are to be of the greatest benefit of the least-advantaged members of society, consistent with the just savings principle (the difference principle). (b) Offices and positions must be open to everyone under conditions of  fair equality of opportunity (Rawls, 1971, p.302) The first part of the second principle (a) holds the idea that the first goal in a choice should be to maximize the least well off rather than to maximize in general. (Maximin) This means that arrangements which imply inequalities might only be accepted if they increase the position of the poorest too. It is well explained by this graphical representation: C:Documents and SettingsRoberta SimeoneDesktoprawls function.jpg This graph is to be interpreted as if there were two individuals; giving freedom to our imagination let us call them: 1 and 2. The social utility of both is to be measured on the 45 degree line in the point of interception with the L curve. A few of them are marked in increasing utility order to give a general idea, I Already this argument (Maximin) proves the effectiveness of Rawls critique to utilitarianism because it gives attention to the distribution of wealth rather than considering merely the sum of all the agents utilities. This will be clear in the paragraph about utilitarianism. The justification for this argument is due to the fact that the randomness of the condition in which one is born is not linked to a moral entitlement. For instance the financial conditions of ones family or even the talents one has are merely casual. That is why it is right to increase first the worse off who had been unlucky in the lottery of life. Utilitarianism Utilitarianism was mainly born by Jeremy Benthams (1748-1832) work. His biggest innovation compared to previous thinkers was to found moral philosophy on a rational basis. This reflects the theoretical innovations of his time, which is the scientific method brought by enlightenment. He therefore tried to make ethics an analytical science which can be proven by logical and mathematical principles. This philosophy is founded on the basic idea that actions should only be judged from the value of its outcome. The key point if we assume this way of thinking, becomes to define precisely how we might value the effects of our actions. We could try to value different things which we generally assumed as good, such as happiness, satisfaction, wealth or even simple pleasure. Not giving any value judgment about this methodology to chose the right action, it is already possible to note that this part is particularly problematic as all these things turn out to be extremely difficult (if not impossible) to measure. The general principle is the so called utility, according to utilitarian philosophers it can be measured by calculation and thus it allows us to compare between actions leading to higher and lower utility outcomes. Bentham believes it is possible to possible to calculate pain and pleasure by using equations, this should be the way to define utility according to the duration and the strength of a feeling (positive or negative). Founding this principle of utility is a general assumption believed to be true by utilitarianism, it is the fact that any activity leads to two basic feelings, which are pleasure and its opposite: pain. Judgment about how to act should only be left to these two. In Benthams words: that property in any object, whereby it tends to produce benefit, advantage, pleasure, good, or happinessorto prevent the happening of mischief, pain, evil, or unhappiness  (Jeremy Bentham Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation  ,1789). As we saw in this paragraph this basic understanding of utilitarianism does not allow us to go beyond a personal, individualistic judgment. How should indeed societys utility be considered? The definition of utility states that it should be considered compared to the part whose interest is concerned. If we consider society as the interested party which might be societys interest? In this philosophy social utility is simple: the sum of all individuals utilities. (As we saw, Rawls position criticizes exactly this simplicity by which utilitarianism simplifies individuals and the general social utility. Which effectively is a fair argument against it). An individualistic approach by which each person maximizes its own utility does not appear to be compatible with collective utility. The way utilitarian philosophers think that it is possible to enforce public interest is trough legislation as a tool, the law should define the principles society wants to respect and the actions which maximize social utility. A well planned legislation will lead to harmonize individual interest to social one by making obedience to laws more convenient than breaking it. This means that the expected utility of committing an action against the law should be lower than the possible advantage to commit a crime. Indeed Bentham tried to find a way to define particularly the penal code, in this way anyone would know the punishment applied for breaking the law which would be leading to a lower utility than respecting it. To give another graphical representation to be compared to the Rawlsian one we can have a look at the following graph: C:Documents and SettingsRoberta SimeoneDesktopUtilità  ut.jpg Again we have our 1 and 2 (individuals) determining social utility, the parallel lines have again a slope of 45 degrees this time turned through 90 degrees. The social utility is on the interception where the two individual ones cross. We can note the fact that even if one has all and the other any (interception between x axis u1 and W1) we still stay on the same social utility: W1. Critical points in utilitarianism Utilitarianism was all but left without critics, already Benthams successor John Stuart Mills (1806-1873) who was the second innovator in utilitarianism started to criticize different approaches and assumption used by Bentham. Indeed Benthams approach used to be focused on the theory by which the public actor should act. Mills on the other hand was focusing more on the personal morality of actions. Compared to Bentham he assumes an approach which is more internal, he tries to focus on the psychology of the agent. Here we find the first critic to utilitarianism; Mills believes utility maximization assumption to be too narrow to explain agents choices. An interesting critique is the one moved by Bernard Williams (1929-2003) it is well explained by an anecdote by Williams himself known as Jim and the Indians: Jim finds himself in the central square of a small South American town. Tied up against the wall are twenty Indians, in front of several armed men in uniform. A heavy man in a sweat-stained khaki shirt turns out to be the captain in charge and () explains that the Indians are a random group of inhabitants who, after recent acts of protest against the government, are just about to be killed to remind other possible protesters of the advantage of not protesting. However, since Jim is an honoured visitor from another land, the captain is happy to offer him a guests privilege of killing one of the prisoners himself. If Jim accepts, then as a special mark of the occasion the other Indians will be let off. Of course, if Jim refuses, there will be no special occasion, and the captain will do what he was about to and kill them all. () The men are against the wall and the other villagers understand the situation and are obviously begging him to accept. What should he do? (B. Williams, A Critique of Utilitarianism in Smart Williams, Utilitarianism: For and Against, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1973) Since utilitarianism only considers the utility of the outcome of an action there is no choice. It is much better in terms of general utility to kill only one person rather than having 19 others been killed. This would simply be better because utilitarianism considers that each one counts for one and only one. What Williams argues is different: that it is not the same consequence if a person is killed by my direct action or if he is killed because of my indirect behavior, which in this case would be an act of not taking participation. Killing actively one person would not preserve our personal moral integrity because indeed we would have killed a human being. This would harm our own personal moral integrity even though it might be a better outcome in terms of social utility. That is the reason why this objection is known as the integrity objection. Rawls critique Rawls position is deeply against utilitarianism, as this philosophy is accepting to give up individual interests for majoritys ones. The utilitarian assumption that individual interest might be given up for society, is criticized even if the sacrifice of someones interest might lead to greater efficiency. For Rawls it is more important to ensure justice before efficiency. It is claimed to be wrong if the majority would get an advantage but the one who has to take the sacrifice is the worst of, and this is unjust. Accordingly, in a just society we have to assume equal citizen rights, which again according to him are an absolute right under any circumstance. The only admissible injustice would be the one which would prevent a worse injustice. The first critical point of utilitarianism he identifies is the fact that it tends to make the individual disappear. Utilitarianism has a very narrowed view of human beings only considering its utility, to the point that once the individual utility is calculated there is no other relevant information concerning the person. This kind of reduction leads utilitarianism to be a philosophy which is indifferent to identity and individuality of people. Further, another critical point is the one concerning distributive justice, utilitarianism tries to maximize the social outcome as a whole, what it still fails to take into account is the distribution of that utility.(As explained by the second graph). If we abstract and consider wealth as utility it does not make a difference it one individual has a lot and most others only a little: the general sum of all the utilities is still maximized. Between two actions, one leading to a utility of six for the first individual and an utility of one for the second, and another leading to three for each ,utilitarianism would choose the first because seven is greater than six. This is because all what matters is the sum of utility, although this leads to profound injustice. Finally he claims that each desire is to be calculated and compared to other desires although they might differ in their nature, what is to be understood as a qualitative versus quantitative difference. Conclusion What Rawls criticized in utilitarianism appears to be right for general principles of social welfare. Utilitarianism has to be awarded with the innovation to apply rationality to moral philosophy. Although it forgets the distribution of wealth problem. This latter one appears to be the most effective critique to utilitarianism. It is undeniable that the utilitarian view of each individual maximizing its own utility as he best believes also implies a higher grade of freedom of choice. This choices should thou be made in a way which is not interfering with social purposes. An action should not only be valued from the utility it brings to the single individual but society as a whole. Because in the end even the single individual is staying in society and thou being influenced from the status quo he stays in. Social welfare is not only profiting the ones who directly gain from it but the whole systems stability. Injustices are the seed of contrasts, the French aristocrats living the French Revolution might agree with this view. Not only is the critique effective but also fair on a moral basis. Society should not be led by individualistic principles, such an assumption would mean to put social morality on the same layer as individual one. But societies emerged from collaboration between individuals to achieve something more. This is the reason why the state should try to be better than individuals particularly concerning morality. On the other had it has to be stated that utilitarianism has the great advantage of being practical and effective to apply. The use of calculation implies an incredible advantage in terms of efficiency in decision-making. Further it is not clear why the two principles of justice should necessarily emerge from the original position, this is basically the critique moved to Rawls by many, among them Amartya Sen. The idea is that other principles might emerge from the choice made under the veil of ignorance.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

The Theme of Death in Poetry Essay -- Robert Frost Emily Dickinson Poe

The Theme of Death in Poetry Robert Frost and Emily Dickinson are two Modern American Poets who consistently wrote about the theme of death. While there are some comparisons between the two poets, when it comes to death as a theme, their writing styles were quite different. Robert Frost’s poem, â€Å"Home Burial,† and Emily Dickinson’s poems, â€Å"I felt a Funeral in my Brain,† and â€Å"I died for Beauty,† are three poems concerning death. While the theme is constant there are differences as well as similarities between the poets and their poems. The obvious comparison between the three poems is the theme of death. Both poets, in these works and many others, display a fascination with the death of themselves as well as the death of peers, and loved ones. Both Frost and Dickinson experienced a great deal of death throughout each of their lives. Frost’s greatest loss was the death of his son, which is greatly depicted in his poem â€Å"Home Burial.† Dickinson suffered the loss of many friends and family. She spent a lot of her time in her room looking out upon the headstones of these people. The only strong comparison between the poets, in terms of structure and technique, is that the meaning of their poems run much deeper then the specific words on a page. Even this can come as a contrast when looking at these three poems. â€Å"Home Burial,† by Frost is a fairly straightforward poem, written in dialogue, with the writer working as the narrator. The poem is about a married couple dealing wi...

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Business Dining Etiquette Essay

Notes for PowerPoint slides Slide 3 Employers may want to see you in a more social situation to see how you conduct yourself, particularly if the job for which you are in requires a certain standard of conduct with clients and superiors. You could be critically scrutinized on your table manners and conduct. The meal is a time to visit and interact and this is always more important than the function of eating. Slide 4 Having a working knowledge of dining etiquette turns any employee into a poised marketing representative of the company. Whether you’re going to a business lunch with your peers, recruiters, clients or partners, you need to make sure you behave appropriately. Yet many business folk don’t know proper dining etiquette. I have put this handy guide together with tips gathered from the business etiquette experts all over the world to help make sure that someone doesn’t call you out at your next business meal. Does anyone have a business dining experience that they would like to share? Slide 5 Be on time, no one wants to be kept waiting. If it is an unavoidable delay, try to contact the person. Keep in mind that you never know when you will encounter heavy traffic, wrecks, construction of other delays Slide 6 Shake hands with all present at the table. If necessary, introduce yourself. Concentrate on remembering your host/hostess’ name. Remain standing until host sits. Host has moved his/her napkin. Sit up straight and don’t tip your chair back. Don’t ask the waiter to explain everything on the menu; you will annoy others and appear indecisive. Place your napkin on your lap after everyone is seated and after you. Lets practice this. I want everyone to stand up move away from your tables each person find a partner and practice meet and greeting each other at the table, remember to greet shake hands and introduce yourself. Wait until the host has seated then you may sit down. Each one of you does this and once you both have practiced you may all be seated. Slide 7- No notes Slide 8 A decade ago young executives were expected to bring table manners to the job with them. In today’s world of busy families, table manners are no longer practiced on a daily basis, making it necessary to teach the acceptable dining etiquette before sending them out to represent the company at a customer lunch of business dinner. There are definite rules of dining etiquette and having a working knowledge of them turns any executive or employee into a gracious host or guest and a poised marketing representative of the company. Slide 9 Order only from the lunch menu, and then, not the most expensive item! The expectations are the employer will pay for the meal; however you may offer. Do not order alcohol and do not order foods that are messy to eat or require you to hold the food with your hands. Order foods that are easy such as chicken, fish or salads. Avoid sloppy hard to eat foods like spaghetti or ribs. Now that you have watched the video are there some pretty obvious things that you seen that were inappropriate? Lets watch the second video on what should be expected during a lunch meeting. Do you all feel that you could be in a lunch meeting situation and act appropriately? Slide 10 With a pre-set mean the host/hostess has already made the selections and the individuals are served. If allergic, religious or vegetarian issues arise, quietly deal with these as the server is at your side. For vegetarian ask if you may have a vegetable plate; with allergies or religion, provide the server with options. Always eat a little of all items served to you that have been brought to you specific from the server in which you have asked for. You will follow the same rules as a pre-set meal the only difference is that you will have more options and you will be able to choose the food based on your preference usually there are a couple of options to choose from within a buffet Slide 11 Most receptions or social hours are for the purpose of mingling and making contacts whether for job leads, as part of an interview or an employee entertaining clients. When you enter the reception observe the layout of the room. Seeing the room layout gives you a clue on how to proceed at the reception. If no tables are available, you should only have a drink or your food in your hand- never both. You should be prepared to greet and shake hands with individuals. If having a drink hold it in your left hand to keep your right hand dry and ready to shake hands. If eating hold your plate on the right hand and eat with the left hand. When someone approaches, you are able to switch the plate to your left hand and your right hand is clean and ready to shake. If tables are available you may have your drink and food together. However, always be ready to stand and greet people. Networking and or mingling are an important aspect of a business function, even if the event is described as a social gathering. Be sure to greet or introduce yourself to the host. Hostess. Spend a few minutes conversing with them on topics that relate to the event or to their business. To move on you can politely say, â€Å" I know you need to talk with other guest. † connect with as many attendees as possible. So not interrupt people; wait until they include you, or there is a break in the conversation and you can introduce yourself. Start conversations by asking someone about themselves. Do not look around the room for your next contact as you converse with someone. Focus eye contact on that individual and after a time, politely excuse yourself to move on to someone else. Slide 12 Office parties are good opportunities to improve morale and build good will. Keep in mind these are people who see you every day and they will remember a lapse in behavior. Be aware of your alcoholic consumption and do not embarrass yourself. Do not discuss business- this is a social occasion and an opportunity to learn more about your co-workers. Now that you have learned about all the scenarios I have some handouts as guidance for you to reference just in case you forget anything that we have discussed. ( Handout 1 and Handout 2) Slide 13 Now that you are aware of the different types of business scenarios you can actually move forward to the part we actually and sitting down and eating. It can be very confusing to be presented with a variety of eating utensils. Remember to start at the outside and work your way in. if you have been given two forks, which are the same size, begin with the fork on the outside. Many restaurants use the same size of fork for both the salad and main course. Be careful how you hold your utensils. Many people tend to make a fist around the handle of the utensil, this is the way a young child would grasp a utensil not an adult. There are two acceptable ways to use the knife and fork; continental fashion and American standard. Continental fashion; the diner cuts the food usually one bite at a time and uses the fork in the left hand, tines pointing down, to spear the food and bring it to the mouth. American standard; a few bites are cut, the knife is laid across the top on the plate, sharp edge toward you and the fork is switched to the right hand, if right-handed, tines up to bring the food to the mouth. Do not cut more than two or three bites at a time. Slide 14 This would be a typical dining table setting. Each and every one of you will walk away today knowing exactly how these should be set up. Slide 15 Continental or European style is when cutting the food with the right hand and using the left hand to hold the food while cutting and when eating. The American style is cutting the food with the right hand and holding the food with the left, then switching hands to eat with the right hand. Slide 16 Do not take a lot of time to order. Others are waiting. Order simply, do not customize your order excessively as this can attract unnecessary and negative attention. Follow your host’s lead. Avoid foods that are difficult to eat and or messy. If you are your host’s guest, select an item that is in the mid-price range, easy to eat and one you will enjoy. Consider asking your host/hostess for a recommendation before making your decision. If you are the host, it is courteous to take the lead in ordering appetizers and wine, if these are to be served. Slide 17 Do introduce yourself to each new person at the table and greet those you have already met before everyone is seated. Remember to use a firm handshake! Don’t talk with food in your mouth. Do sit up straight and keep your arms and elbows off the table. Don’t blow on food that is hot. Do carry food to your mouth with an inward, not an outward, curve of the fork or spoon. Don’t gesture with silverware in your hand. Do look into, not over, your cup or glass when drinking. Don’t overload your plate. Do try a little of everything served to you unless you are allergic. Don’t saw back and forth with your knife; stroke the knife toward you instead. Don’t let your silverware touch the table after you have picked it up. If you are not finished eating, place the fork and knife on your plate in an upside down V. Don’t push your plate away from you when you are finished; instead place your fork and knife side by side on your plate at an angle Slide 18. All of these will be very useful when you have your first business dinner. Or maybe this is a refresher for those who have encountered a business dining situation before. While eating wait for everyone to get their meal before starting yours, take small bites, try to pace yourself to finish as the same times as everyone else. If you leave the table, excuse yourself and place your napkin on your seat. When you are finished eating, place your napkin neatly to the left of your plate, but do not push your place setting away from you. Slide 19- No Notes Slide 20. You should prearrange how the bill is being paid. Always make sure the bill is accurate. Last thing to remember when paying the is to tip appropriately 15% for moderate service and 20% for excellent service. Now that you have finished thank your guest for joining you and shake their hand again. Slide 21 Now that you have sat through all of this training I am sure you all have worked up a appetite. How about we demonstrate what we have learned here today? We will be dining at the Radisson Hotel for a business dinner with everyone who has attended today. You all will be monitored so lets show the company you can do this! After dinner we will meet back here to finalize this workshop. At this time any questions that have not been answered during the presentation feel free to ask them now. Slide 22 A good point to remember in business etiquette is everyone should be treated with equal courtesy and respect. Business etiquette should be a give and take, to help each other when help is needed and have consideration for others. Good manners and business etiquette have always been based on common sense and thoughtfulness.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Coming of Age essays

Coming of Age essays Both Araby by James Joyce, and As Araby and John Updikes A The main character of Araby is a young boy just coming into his middle teens. He comes from a religious upbringing, lives in a quiet neighborhood and is extremely respectful of his elders. He loves to read, as is evident by his liking The Memoirs of Vidocq (Joyce 728) and enjoys cherished, passed down literature as its leaves (have become) yellow (pg. 728) over time. He is also a good student, except when his thoughts are occupied by his best friends sister who also lives in his neighborhood. He is infatuated with her Her image accompanied me even in places the most hostile to romance (pg. 729) but he is clearly shy because he makes it known that he did not know whether I would ever speak to her (pg. 729) Instead of approaching her, he watched her from our shadow peer up and down the street. Every morning I lay on the front parlous watching her door. The blind was pulled down to within an inch of the sash so that I could not be seen (pg. 729). He is also very u! ncertain of his feelings and his confused adoration (pg. 729). Yet, he is very clear in his actions of being polite. He withstands the gossip of the tea-table (pg. 731). instead of leaving for the fair. He nicely asks his uncle to give him money to go to the bazaar and patiently waits until he is excuse...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Electron Transport Chain and Energy Production

Electron Transport Chain and Energy Production In cellular biology, the electron transport chain is one of the steps in your cells processes that make energy from the foods you eat.   It is the third step of aerobic cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the term for how your bodys cells make energy from food consumed. The electron transport chain is where most of the energy cells need to operate is generated. This chain is actually a series of protein complexes and electron carrier molecules within the inner membrane of cell mitochondria, also known as the cells powerhouse. Oxygen is required for  aerobic respiration  as the chain terminates with the donation of electrons to oxygen.   Key Takeaways: Electron Transport Chain The electron transport chain is a series of protein complexes and electron carrier molecules within the inner membrane of mitochondria that generate ATP for energy.Electrons are passed along the chain from protein complex to protein complex until they are donated to oxygen. During the passage of electrons, protons are pumped out of the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the intermembrane space.The accumulation of protons in the intermembrane space creates an electrochemical gradient that causes protons to flow down the gradient and back into the matrix through ATP synthase. This movement of protons provides the energy for the production of ATP.The electron  transport chain is the third step of aerobic cellular respiration. Glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are the first two steps of cellular respiration. How Energy Is Made As electrons move along a chain, the movement or momentum is used to create  adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the main source of energy for many cellular processes including muscle contraction and cell division. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a organic chemical that provides energy for cell. ttsz / iStock / Getty Images Plus Energy is released during cell metabolism when ATP is hydrolyzed. This happens when electrons are passed along the chain from protein complex to protein complex until they are donated to oxygen forming water.  ATP chemically decomposes to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by reacting with water. ADP is in turn used to synthesize ATP. In more detail, as electrons are passed along a chain from protein complex to protein complex, energy is released and hydrogen ions (H) are pumped out of the mitochondrial matrix (compartment within the inner  membrane) and into the intermembrane space (compartment between the inner and outer membranes). All this activity creates both a chemical gradient (difference in solution concentration) and an electrical gradient (difference in charge) across the inner membrane. As more H  ions are pumped into the intermembrane space, the higher concentration of  hydrogen atoms  will build up and flow back to the matrix simultaneously powering the production of ATP by the protein complex ATP synthase. ATP synthase uses the energy generated from the movement of H  ions into the matrix for the conversion of ADP to ATP. This process of oxidizing molecules to generate energy for the production of ATP is called oxidative phosphorylation. The First Steps of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. normaals / iStock / Getty Images Plus The first step of cellular respiration is glycolysis. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and involves the splitting of one molecule of glucose into two molecules of the chemical compound pyruvate. In all, two molecules of ATP and two molecules of NADH (high energy, electron carrying molecule) are generated. The second step, called the citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle, is when pyruvate is transported across the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. Pyruvate is further oxidized in the Krebs cycle producing two more molecules of ATP, as well as NADH and FADH 2 molecules. Electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transferred to the third step of cellular respiration, the electron transport chain. Protein Complexes in the Chain There are four protein complexes  that are part of the electron transport chain that functions to pass electrons down the chain. A fifth protein complex serves to transport hydrogen ions back into the matrix. These complexes are embedded within the inner mitochondrial membrane.   Illustration of electron transport chain with oxidative phosphorylation. extender01 / iStock / Getty Images Plus Complex I NADH transfers two electrons to Complex I resulting in four H ions being pumped across the inner membrane. NADH is oxidized to NAD, which is recycled back into the Krebs cycle. Electrons are transferred from Complex I to a carrier molecule ubiquinone (Q), which is reduced to ubiquinol (QH2). Ubiquinol carries the electrons to Complex III. Complex II FADH2 transfers electrons to Complex II and the electrons are passed along to ubiquinone (Q). Q is reduced to ubiquinol (QH2), which carries the electrons to Complex III. No H ions are transported to the intermembrane space in this process. Complex III The passage of electrons to Complex III drives the transport of four more H ions across the inner membrane. QH2 is oxidized and electrons are passed to another electron carrier protein cytochrome C. Complex IV Cytochrome C passes electrons to the final protein complex in the chain, Complex IV. Two H ions are pumped across the inner membrane. The electrons are then passed from Complex IV to an oxygen (O2) molecule, causing the molecule to split. The resulting oxygen atoms quickly grab H ions to form two molecules of water. ATP Synthase ATP synthase moves H ions that were pumped out of the matrix by the electron transport chain back into the matrix. The energy from the influx of protons into the matrix is used to generate ATP by the phosphorylation (addition of a phosphate) of ADP. The movement of ions across the selectively permeable mitochondrial membrane and down their electrochemical gradient is called chemiosmosis. NADH generates more ATP than FADH2. For every NADH molecule that is oxidized, 10 H ions are pumped into the intermembrane space. This yields about three ATP molecules. Because FADH2 enters the chain at a later stage (Complex II), only six H ions are transferred to the intermembrane space. This accounts for about two ATP molecules. A total of 32 ATP molecules are generated in electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Sources Electron Transport in the Energy Cycle of the Cell. HyperPhysics, hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Biology/etrans.html.Lodish, Harvey, et al. Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation. Molecular Cell Biology. 4th Edition., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2000, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21528/.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

The Empire Of Good Intentions Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Empire Of Good Intentions - Movie Review Example Schama succeeds in showing that the anti-colonial insurgency was rampant in India, and the Indians resisted the British reforms, which portrayed a lack of religious sensitivity. Through the illustrative presentation of the readings by the actors, the viewers of the documentary realize that Britain was about to lose control of India as indicated in the mutiny unless it devised a new method of governance. Hence, the British quest to realign its structures of governing the colonies portrays that the colonizer’s self-interest to control every aspect of the colony’s life. Although famine is a natural calamity, the documentary helps the viewers and historians to recognize that the 1845 potato drought, which led to migration from Ireland to the United States, reflected the inability of the natives to survive the calamity due to the weakened economy attributed to the British domination and incompatible policies. The central subject of the British imperialism through the promise of civilization in Ireland and India is well covered and presented in the documentary. Notably, the British used the principles of liberalism and economic to impose the imperial policies that were not compatible with those of the colonies. The efforts to restore the preserve the Britain imperial system in India after the 1857-8 Mutiny is enough evidence that the British had a selfish interest as opposed to economic liberalism in the host nations. Fundamentally, the British imperialism disrupted the lifestyles of the colonies.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Leadership Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Leadership - Research Paper Example The leader faces many resistances while introducing a change in the ongoing process. But it’s his confidence and consistency that motivates him and guides him throughout his life. Leaders also have the unique capacity to foresee things which the people with non-leadership traits fail to realize. The focus of our thesis is to study the recent news articles related to leadership and learn the form of leadership those articles refer to. We have chosen Jay-Z as our leader as he is known to be equally successful in showcasing his talents of music and entrepreneurship simultaneously. Background Early life of Jay Z Born on the 4th of December 1969 at Brooklyn, he was known as Shawn Corey Carter to everyone. His childhood was spent among war & crime ridden environment of the Marcy Projects. He had the habit of writing since his childhood days. He was adventurous by nature & learnt bike riding at the tender age of four. A poetry that he revealed in Rolling Stone Magazine’s Novem ber 2007 issue says that, â€Å"I’m the king of hip-hop/Renewed like the Reebok/The key in the lock/with words so provocative/As long as I live†. He listened to Al Green, Stevie Wonder & Prince. He was a good student, good at sports & a happy-go-lucky kind of person. He always felt the need for a male in his house when his father left his mother. He was only 11 years old when this sudden change in his life totally shocked him. He lost his only mentor. To support his family he started rapping on the streets. Soon he was popular as a fledging rapper. The people who knew him started addressing him as Jazzy. He shortened this name & became known as Jay-Z. In his life, he found two people to guide him, one was a rapper named Jaz-O who taught him the tricks of the rap industry, and the other was a drug dealer. Jaz-O was experienced than him & they met for the first time in a contest to rap against each other. Jaz-O underestimated the talent of the 15year old kid & decided to sing with each other rather against each other. Its then he got impressed by the kid’s talent & decided to train him. Jaz-O advised him to practice as much as possible. Sources say that Jay-Z was found rapping in between his classes & during his lunch breaks at schools when most of the kid would involve in fights & games. Jay-Z also participated for a short time in a now forgotten group, named Original Flavor. It’s known that two of the popular rappers of present days hailed from George Washington High School & they used to be Jay-Z’s classmates. They are, Notorious B.I.G. & Busta Rhymes. (Heos 3) The onset of success Struggle & tough times were all around Jay-Z. Still he managed to make a great decision. He decided to start his own music label instead of signing other renowned labels. This strategy would surely cut the cost of middleman still it was risky enough. His friends, Kareem Burke & Damon dash helped him in the formation of Roc-a-Fella Records. (starpu lse.com) Damon dash had a childhood similar to him; he was raised by a