Saturday, August 31, 2019
When attending college withers a new student or old, there will be barriers in the way. These roadblocks can appear in various ways during a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s career in college. The barriers can be anything from money, or attendance, and even time management. The key is to recognize the walls and overcome them to succeed. First, issue for many students is money. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not cheap to attend college, but colleges have many ways of helping out their students. One way, is students can obtain grants from various places. Grants are checks that students can use and donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to pay back the money. On the other hand, thereÃ¢â¬â¢re loans which is money a student can use, but has to pay it back. Another, important source of money is scholarships. Scholarships work like grants but students have to earn them and have to meet certain requirements to keep them. An alternative way from student aid is to pay out of pocket for school, so like work wages or maybe an allowance. Just keep in mind there are a lot of options to help pay for college so donÃ¢â¬â¢t let finances be a oadblock. Second, mountain in the road is attendance. Always show up for class and on time attendance is very important college as well as life. Students who attend class on regular bases have a better chance of passing the class than those who donÃ¢â¬â¢t. Also, colleges have stipulations when it comes to attendance too, if a student misses too many days of class than the college can kick the student out. This rule applies for tardiness as well show up to late too many times and the students gone. Lastly, showing up to class helps getting good grades which can lead to getting scholarships. Finally, a big barrier in the way to success in college is time management. If students donÃ¢â¬â¢t learn how to balance a work load and a course load then college is going to a rough time. Second, a student must put some time back for studying without study time student wonÃ¢â¬â¢t pass classes. Besides, work and class time there also transportation that can hinder time. It is always good to know when to get to ollege and how to get there; by bus, a car, and possibly a friend. That ride it takes to get to school factors in as time management how long will take to arrive at school. Before a student attends college learn some time management skills and it will be a lot easier to balance a schedule. One can deduce that there are many different roadblocks in the way to success in college. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t let the barriers win Just recognize them and overcome the barriers. Stay focus on studies and earn the degree to become a proud college graduate.
7-11 SOM Study Ã¢â¬â Final Group 1 LRSP Ã¢â¬â 433 March 3, 2010 Pledged 3/3/2010 Table of Contents Background2-3 Problem Statement4 Scope5 Service Design and Characteristics6 Service Analysis and Selection7-8 Sales Production & Forecasting9-11 Breakeven Analysis12-13 Capacity Management (includes Decision Tree)14-15 Inventory Management and Materials Requirements16 Logistics and Supply Chain Management17 Quality Management and Implementation18-19 Prototype Design20-21 Conclusions & Recommendations22 References23 Appendices Ã¢â¬â Tables/Figures/Graphs24 Background Extensive research into 7 ElevenÃ¢â¬â¢s history and current status finds there is no evidence 7-Eleven has ever had one of their stores provide a drive through service. The company that pioneered the convenience store concept was founded during 1927 in Dallas, Texas and the concept was developed during their first five years of operation. The company was initially an ice company and its retail outlets began selling milk, bread and eggs as a convenience to local customers. Almost 20 years later (1946) the name 7-Eleven originated in when stores adjusted their hours of operation to 7 a. m. to 11 p. m. (7-Eleven About Us, 2010). 7-Eleven, Inc. has become the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest operator, franchisor and licensor of convenience stores. Based in Dallas, Texas, the company operates, franchises and licenses more than 6,970 stores in the U. S. and Canada. The company operates and franchises more than 5,900 (4,550 franchised) stores in the United States and they serve approximately seven million customers each day. Store count exceeded 36,000 worldwide in April 2009. Internationally, 7-Eleven operates, licenses and affiliates convenience stores in countries including Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Mexico, Singapore, Australia, Philippines, Indonesia, Norway, Sweden and Denmark (7-Eleven Inc, 2010). 7-Eleven marketing strategy focuses the needs of convenience oriented customers by providing a broad selection of fresh, high quality products and services at everyday fair prices, and speedy transactions. Each store's selection of about 2,500 different products and services is tailored to meet the needs and preferences of local customers. Stores typically vary in size from 2,400 to 3,000 square feet and are most often located on corners for great visibility and easy access. 7-ElevenÃ¢â¬â¢s food service offers a proprietary line of prepared-fresh-daily and daily delivered deli sandwiches, wraps, breakfast sandwiches and a wide assortment of baked goods. Well known 7-Eleven proprietary products are; Big Gulp fountain soft drink, Big Bite grill items, the Slurpee beverage and fresh-brewed Cafe Select coffee. 7-Eleven is also one of the nation's largest independent gasoline retailers. In addition to the food and gasoline service, 7-Eleven offers patrons a number of convenient services designed to meet the specific needs of individual neighborhoods, including automated money orders, copiers, fax machines, automatic teller machines, phone cards and, where available, lottery tickets. Key Milestones * 7-Eleven, Inc. is privately held and became a wholly owned subsidiary of Seven-Eleven Japan Co. , Ltd. in Tokyo, Japan, and its affiliates on Nov. 9, 2005. * Company launched its private-label brand, 7-Select, in 2008 and introduced 32 new products to stores. 7-Eleven introduced Yosemite Road Wines to their stores * In 2009, 7-Eleven began offering a Hot Foods Menu Ã¢â¬â includes pizza, chicken tenders, chicken wings, breakfast sausage, egg and cheese quesadillas and hash-brown potatoes. 7-Eleven has become much more innovative since the mid 1990's. They have evolved from a decentralized retail organization, with most store support functions handled in each geographic ally organized division by a local management team to the proprietary Retail Information System (RIS). In 1994 The University of 7-Eleven (USE) was born out of the Merchandising Personnel Expo, a store show and sampling event held once a year and intended to train field merchandising. USE was expanded to include field consultants and market managers and today it gives franchisees, store managers and employees a chance to see and taste new products for upcoming seasons that are intended to address the changing preferences of customers. The merchandising plan for seasonal and high-potential new products is also shared. The centerpiece of the USE is the virtual 7-Eleven store, actual size 7-Eleven floor plans are built to show how seasonal products are assimilated into the standard store mix (7-Eleven About Us, 2010). For future reference, this capability should be the tool whereby the adjustments necessary to accommodate a drive thru capability are visualized and ultimately realized. For perspective, as of January 2010, 7-Eleven, Inc. had earned the No. 3 spot on Entrepreneur magazine annual Franchise 500, which ranks top franchise opportunities in the U. S. An obviously healthy organization, this is 7-Eleven's 17th year to break into the top 10 (7-Eleven Inc, 2010). Problem Statement A major element of 7-11Ã¢â¬â¢s success is its focus on convenience. By staying open 24 hours a day and offering quick and easy pre-made food items, customers are able to make a speedy stop at the store at any point during the day. 7-11 continues to add to its selection of food items to better compete with fast food restaurants and other convenience stores. However, while 7-11 does compete very well with other convenience stores, the store has a significant disadvantage competing with fast food chains due to the ack of a drive-thru. Customers may choose to visit a McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s or a Burger King over 7-11 for their beverages and sandwiches, simply due to the fact that they do not have to get out of the car. Therefore, 7-11 would benefit significantly from a strategy that allows them to be competitive with the fast food chains while simultaneously captur ing a market niche that other convenience stores have no capability in. For that reason, this report analyzes the financial benefit of adding a drive-thru window to already existing 7-11 stores. Scope This study analyzes the challenges and benefits of adding a drive-thru window service to existing 7-11 service designs and subsequently offers a prototype solution for the drive thru service option. Analysis includes detailed service design or redesign of current 7-11 service systems along with examining processes and physical layouts of stores. Sales forecasting will be used to support decision tree modeling intended to examine strengths and weaknesses of the drive thru service as an alternative to current 7-11 service (based upon costs and revenues). The break-even point of adding this service is also considered along with numbers required to make a profit. Other stores with successful drive-thru services will be examined for purposes of potentially adopting similar methods in specific service areas. This project provides analysis for an efficient queuing system for the drive thru customer and establishing a smooth process for the 7-11 employees to complete the customer orders. This study also examines why 7-11 stores should select specific products for sale through the drive thru window that are intended to encourage customers to choose 7-11 over competitors. Service Design and Characteristics The 7-Eleven franchise locations across the nation offer the convenience of access to gasoline and groceries. Historically the onus was on the client to retrieve the products desired, and then purchase the items. The current structure of the 7-Eleven queuing system is the simplest form of single channel, single phase (7-Eleven Inc, 2010). In that the client enters the store and selects the product, waits in line, and then purchases the item. Depending on the store location, and the ability for paying staff, there are either one or two cashiers. The service of 7-ElevenÃ¢â¬â¢s convenience is hampered by fluctuations of population arrival rates during specific events, and times of day. The exponential distribution of clients assists in ordering products, but it does not repair the service failings when there are long lines, especially compared to the competitor Wawa, Inc. Wawa has twice the amount of gasoline stalls, and cashier capabilities. Customers are able to still walk in select product, and gasoline, but do not have to wait as long, because the flow and layout of the Wawa store is set up to handle periods of higher traffic. The set up of the 7-Eleven store is such that they are still servicing smaller populations, and are not retrofit to handle higher amounts of traffic; therefore 7-Eleven is missing out on opportunities from the clientele that are in need of a quicker sales process. The correction of this lies in altering the service design of the franchise stores. The addition of a drive-thru window would dramatically increase the service capabilities of the franchise locations. This would shift the service flow to a multi-channel single phase process. The addition of a separate external line would benefit the current queuing system the 7-Eleven offers, of just one or two cashiers servicing all clientele. The ability to handle the clientele who are simply purchasing the convenience items, foods, and beverages has the potential to firm the positioning of the organization. Cars passing through a drive-thru would be able to purchase simple items such as coffee, quick 7-Eleven brand foods, Slurpees, and tobacco products. As exampled in the costs analysis the alteration of the retrofit to include a drive-thru window, would require a store owner to incur a significant loan to complete the product, but the break-even point would be relatively quick considering the size of investment, and the future return on investment has the potential to increase store sales significantly. The new flow decreases the inside traffic, which reduces the amount of irritation a person feels when trying to purchase the signature 7-Eleven items (7-Eleven Inc, 2010). Service Analysis and Selection Service Process Flowchart Service Analysis: The Queuing System The 7-Eleven Drive-Thru queue system will be a simple first come, first served system. This will simplify queue system discipline. The line structure will be a single channel, single phase; the simplest type of waiting line structure. We will make the following assumptions for our drive-thru model: * An arrival rate of sixteen cars (customers) per hour * A customer service rate of three* minutes per unit or twenty per hour * Poisson arrivals and exponential service We can now determine the following: * Utilization of the drive-thru operator(s) * Average number waiting in line Average number in the system * Average waiting time in line * Average waiting time in the system, including service * Average utilization of the drive-thru operator(s) is 80%. The average number in the waiting line is 3. 2 cars. The average number in the system is 4 cars. The average waiting time in line is 12 minutes. The average waiting time in the system is 15 minutes. Our new store layout provides limited sp ace availability and we want to keep our customers safe and provide acceptable service. We would like to ensure, with 95% certainty that no more than 4 cars will be in the system at any time. The present level of service for the four car limit is 67. 2%. Therefore, the probability of having more than four cars in the system is 32. 8 %. The operator(s) must attain a service level of 29 cars per hour to provide a 95% confidence that no more than four cars will be in the system. The current operator rate is 20 per hour; the rate will improve because we will provide a limited selection of items for our drive-thru customers and acceptance of electronic payment will increase efficiency also. *Approximately three minutes per customer is the drive-thru national average ime for customer service (Baker, 2009). Sales and Production Forecasting Sales and Production Forecasting (cont) Sales and Production Forecasting (cont) Individual Product Sales Changes due to Drive-Thru Window Breakeven Analysis As the store stands, the breakeven point of current sales is 23,809. The table below assumes a monthly fixed cost of $42,618 with no addition to the store, with an average unit variable co st of $1. 21 per unit and an average selling price of $3. 00 per unit. If the lease holder decides to add the drive through window, the estimated cost of construction will run $400,000. As the store does not have this amount of cash, a loan will need to be taken to cover costs. Fortunately, the store is able to gain a loan for 5 years at 6% interest. Due to the increased size of the building and additional employees and infrastructure, the fixed costs increase from $42,618 to $66,025 or an increase of 55%. However, because of the drive through window the store will be selling higher profit margin goods such as coffee, fountain drinks, bottle drinks and cigarettes in greater volume, the variable cost per transaction will decrease from 1. 21 to $0. 91 and the average selling price will also decrease to $2. 65. These values hold the required profit margin percentage relatively constant while increasing profits through increased unit sales. The chart below assumes a monthly fixed cost of $66,025 plus $400,000 loan (Financed 5 years, 6% Int = $7,773/month), an average variable cost of $0. 91 per unit and an average selling price of $2. 65. The difference between break even points is reduced from 23,809 additional units sold to 20,847 cover the cost of the loan amount. Therefore, if the store can obtain finiancing for the $400,000 loan, then the investment will be profitable both in the short and long term periods. Capacity Management Capacity planning for our 7-Eleven drive thru was mostly completed in the Service Analysis section where the service rate was calculated. Based on our customer service rate of three minutes per customer (vehicle), the maximum capacity of our drive thru is twenty cars per hour or theoretically, 174,720 vehicles per year. However, demand will not dictate that the drive thru operate at sustained maximum capacity at all times. Jacobs and Chase determines that the best operating point for a service is near 70 percent of the maximum capacity for the best balance between rate of service utilization and service quality (Jacobs & Chase, 2009). In our present queuing model, the operator utilization rate is 80 percent. The zone between 70% and 100% of capacity is the critical zone where customers will get processed through the line but service quality will decline. Above 100% capacity, the line will back up and many customers will probably not be served at all. We can safely lower the projected customer arrival rate from 16 vehicles per hour to 15 vehicles per hour which will calculate to an operator utilization rate of 75 percent; while still maintaining a customer service rate of three minutes or less. The queuing system will now be revised: * Average utilization of drive thru operator(s) is 70% * Average number of customers waiting in line is 2. 25 * Average number of customers in the system is 3 * Average waiting time in line is 9 minutes * Average waiting time in the system is 12 minutes The remainder of the queuing system data remains unchanged because we will still operate at a 95% certainty that no more than 4 cars will be in the system at any time. At 75% capacity the customers can be served quickly and accurately. The remaining 25% unused capacity can be utilized in valued added operations such as facility clean-up and maintenance, refilling refreshment tables or shelf stocking. Considering the volatility of customer demand throughout the daily cycle, this is a good balance. The breakeven analysis determined that an addition 20,847 units need be sold monthly to cover the cost of the loan amount for the drive thru addition. At 75% operator utilization rate, the drive thru has the capacity to serve 10,920 vehicles per month. Capacity Management Ã¢â¬â Decision Tree Analysis 1) Build drive-thru addition to existing store at a cost of $400,000. 0. Offer a limited assortment of targeted items to drive-thru selection. Sales of 401400 (33,450 x 12) units per year for 5 years at average unit cost of $2. 63 is $1,055. 682. 00. Probability is 80% for $4. 88 million in revenue . 20% for $2. 77 million in revenue. 2) Build drive -thru addition to existing store at a cost of $400,000. 00. Discontinue wal k-in service, provide limited assortment of items. Sales of 240,000 (20,000 x 12) units per year for 5 years at average cost of $2. 63 is $631,200. 00. Probability is 80% for $2. 76 million in revenue, 20% for $1. 49 million in revenue. ) Do nothing. Sales of 300,000 (25,000 x 12) units per year at an average unit cost of $3. 00 is $900,000. Probability is 80% for $4. 5 million in revenue, 20% for $2. 7 million in revenue. Inventory Management and Material Requirements 7-11 has already implemented an effective inventory management system. The Retail Information System (RIS) was developed in the early 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s to maintain store inventory and manage product ordering. Initially created as an accounting system, the RIS has been developed to track sales information and determine the success of each product. Therefore, the RIS enables store operators to Ã¢â¬Å"stay in stock, order best-selling and delete slow-moving items,Ã¢â¬ (Store, 2010). The RIS uses a bar code scanner and touch screen point-of-sale registers to scan products and track when they are being sold. This system allows store operators to easily obtain current stock quantities and determine which products are selling well. As the stock decreases, managers use Mobile Ordering Terminals to reorder items that are moving and delete items that are not selling (Store, 2010). Since 7-11Ã¢â¬â¢s RIS has been successfully established as an effective form of product management, this report does not recommend implementing any additional inventory systems to maintain the stock. While the inventory system would not have to change, there would be a few new material requirements for adding a drive-thru service to 7-11. The stores may require additional registers and counter space to account for the new layout designed around the window. Furthermore, stores may need to order more stands and coolers to display the food products closer to the counter so that they are in a convenient location for the employees running the window. Finally, the 7-11 will need to create the drive-thru menu for customers to view before they order. Logistics and Supply Chain Management Location Selection The current requirements for the selection of optimum locations depend on the traffic of the area, and design of the store. The urban locations have a high foot-traffic requirement, and thus would not be an optimal choice for this conversion. The free standing stores in strip-mall locations would not be a desirable location either, due to the fact that the structure is not owned by 7-Eleven. The prime locations for the 7-Eleven with the drive-thru would be the locations that are free standing, with fuel capabilities; these stores have the option of being retro-fit or built-to-suit. The traffic requirements for these locations are as listed: 1. Trade area demographicsÃ¢â¬â(a) Heavy density within ? mile radius Ã¢â¬â 5,000 or more residents/workers per square mile in the trade area; (b) Lack of low priced gas brands within ? mile 2. TrafficÃ¢â¬â(a) 25,000 vehicles per day passing the site 3. Activity GeneratorsÃ¢â¬â(a) Mixture of residential, commercial, office, Industrial; (b) Freeway orientation preferred; (c) Complimentary 24 hour uses 4. Site CharacteristicsÃ¢â¬â(a) Corner location with traffic signal or shopping center pad location; (b) 25,000 to 50,000 sq. ft. space preferred; (c) High visibility and excellent accessibility with typical gas station access Ã¢â¬â far corner and no road medians preferred; (d) 2,000 to 3,000 sq. ft store size Ã¢â¬â min. 1,800 sq. ft selling space; (e) Spacious and convenient ingress, egress, and in-lot maneuverability; (f) Ability to sell beer and wine preferred; (g) 24 hour operation required There would still need to be a high density of population, and traffic for the new sites. Traffic and activity generators would also be the same. The primary alteration would be the need to select a site that can support the new feature. The square foot space preferred would need to be altered to include the drive-thru space of the store, and extra pavement outside. Traffic flow would also have to be managed in a way that would make the inside of the store as accessible as before, in addition to allowing the gasoline purchase to still be maintained. This would necessitate an additional 10,000 sq. ft. for the pavement, in addition to the extra 500 to 1,000 sq. ft. of space added to the store (Store RIS, 2010). Supply Chain Management The current supply method for 7-Eleven is a Just-In-Time (JIT) method, and it begins with the Retail Information System (RIS). The store owner will be able to order the extra inventory needed to stock the drive-thru in addition to the regular interior sales, with the click of a button on this system. Supplies currently are delivered throughout the day, depending on the items needed and the supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s schedules. The alteration of the select stores utilizing the drive-thru window increase of supplies needed, and subsequently would require an increase of deliveries to the store. The alteration would impact each segment of the supply chain, beginning with the centrally located distribution center, and filtering out to the distributors. This impact would also increase of demand from suppliers in each link; similar to the economic concept of a money multiplier. There would not be an extreme alteration of supply chain management, considering only select stores will have this option (Store RIS, 2010). Quality Management and Implementation The breadth and depth of current 7-Eleven systems and processes should allow for an uncomplicated implementation of a new Drive-Thru service. To support this position the following analysis and discussion is offered. 7-Eleven is not an ISO-9000 company however it is a very innovative and well managed company. And though 7-Eleven is not ISO 9000 certified their most important business processes align with the management principles of the ISO standards and Total Quality Management objectives. There is nothing in the 7-Eleven archives that clearly states they have a Quality Management System however several of their internal systems and processes equate to a Quality Management System because of the functional areas they control (Jacobs & Chase, 2009). A recent 7-Eleven corporate job opening announcement for a Continuous Improvement Manager (CI) stipulated Six Sigma certification was a desired qualification. A CI Manager would be expected to participate with division level managers in corporate process improvement events at various facilities. The CI Manager would also be responsible for executing process overhaul, and upgrading programs for the organization at local levels. In addition, the CI Manager would be responsible for coaching, functional training, communications, and identifying and transferring best practices externally and internally (Jobs in DFW, 2010). Thus, 7-Eleven does recognize and embrace the benefits of Six Sigma certification. Foremost in importance to quality management and process improvement for any organization is its IT infrastructure. Accordingly, 7-Eleven commissioned Hewlett Packard (HP) to assist in analyzing their IT requirements and then developing an IT infrastructure that supported all of 7-Eleven's needs. The 7-Eleven CIO ultimately approved the HP Adaptive Enterprise Strategy as the company IT solution. The AE Strategy enhances system wide agility and improves productivity and service. -Eleven management views the AE Strategy as differentiating their company from other organizations in the way they run their stores, select and distribute products, work with suppliers, serve customers and communicate to key stakeholders. Other key 7-Eleven systems identified and analyzed in this report leverage the overarching AE infrastructure to perform their varied processes (7-Eleven Inc, 2010). The Retail Information Syste ms (RIS) uses AE infrastructure servers, switches, printers, and monitors to drive all of their system processes on a 4/7 basis. As noted earlier in the background section 7-Eleven is one of the nation's largest independent gasoline retailers and tied into the AE infrastructure is the FuelQuest Fuel Management System (FMS) that 7-Eleven uses to remotely monitor tank inventories, forecast fuel replenishment, manage fuel-supplier contracts, perform best-buy, fuel-pricing analysis, ensure environmental compliance and to dispatch and receive fuel deliveries (7-Eleven Inc, 2004). The University of 7-Eleven (USE) could arguably be the key component in 7-Eleven's quality management processes and essential to the successful implementation of a new Drive-Thru service. The USE was discussed in some detail during the background section so just a few key attributes that could be leveraged to facilitate implementation of a new Drive-Thru service will be highlighted here. The USE is a great tool for examination and quality implementation of change. 7-Eleven senior management employs the USE to introduce new ideas and to start standardization of product selections, merchandising and operations. They involve all levels of management, marketing, field consultants, franchisees, and employees in the USE, providing everyone an opportunity to see and taste new products, and review recommended merchandising plans for seasonal and high-potential new products. The centerpiece of the USE, and possibly most beneficial to supporting the Drive-Thru concept is the Virtual 7-Eleven store Ã¢â¬â an actual size 7-Eleven floor plan designed to show how products are assimilated into the standard store mix (7-Eleven About Us, 2010). This capability should be leveraged as the means through which the new Drive-Thru service is modeled. Physical structure of a facility with a Drive-Thru service could easily be modeled, thereby allowing for examination of internal re-design or process changes/improvements necessary for the new concept. Although 7-Eleven does not Ã¢â¬Å"flyÃ¢â¬ a TQM flag above their corporate headquarters, their key management systems and processes indicate they adhere to an organization wide commitment to continuous work improvement and meeting customers' needs, with continuous effort to improve quality whenever and wherever possible Ã¢â¬â an approach that defines the basic tenets of TQM. A benefit from this should be a successful implementation of a new Drive-Thru service. Prototype Design Current 7-Eleven Store Layout & Design New 7-Eleven Drive-Thru Prototype Layout & Design Conclusions and Recommendations The option to expand an individual 7-Eleven store with a Drive-Thu window will not only develop a more profitable scenario for the individual lease holder, it may also stand as a positive example for implementing profitable innovations through the 7-Elenve convenience store network and company structure. Based on preliminary financial analysis a $400,000 investment in a drive through window will greatly increase fixed costs, will dramatically increase profits through increased average transaction sales and a reduction in variable costs due to availability of products offered. The main sections of the 7-Eleven store will remain the same, but the drive-thru window will provide customers specific goods such as coffee, soft drinks and cigarettes which represent the stores highest volume and highest marginal profit items. The profits generated from the addition will provide customers a greater value by offering them the benefits of remaining in their car to obtain most of the same goods and services typically available in the store. If the venture is successful, it is very likely corporate support will be granted resulting in additional Drive-Thru locations throughout the country. To properly implement these changes, additional training and support structures already exist within The University of 7-Eleven (USE). The USE is the principal Ã¢â¬Å"change managementÃ¢â¬ tool for 7-Eleven and therefore should be the centerpiece for managing implementation of the Drive-Thru Service. The company currently uses the USEÃ to introduce new products and processes, they educate and involve employees, managers, and suppliers in the USE, and the Virtual Store is precisely what should be used to model our Drive-Thru Service & Prototype. Proper training is the first step for educating current store lease holders to achieve success. To further incentivize and expand national 7-Eleven sales, corporate financing should be made available to encourage private lease holders to expand their businesses with the Drive-Thru service. In addition, 7-Eleven can assist individual lease holder by providing common construction plans, operations managers and breakeven data from similar sized and market stores to paint a better picture of the profitability of expansion. These trends will provide customers higher value while creating better profits for individual store as well as the organization as a whole. References 7 Eleven Ã¢â¬â About Us. (2010). Retrieved February 10, 2010, from http://www. 7-eleven. com/AboutUs/tabid/73/Default. aspx 7-Eleven Inc. Climbs to No. 3 Spot. (2010). Retrieved February 11, 2010, from http://www. 7-eleven. com/NewsRoom/7ElevenIncClimbstoNo3Spot/tabid/360/Default. aspx. 7-Eleven, Inc. , Selects FuelQuest/PDI for Gasoline Inventory Management and Accounting System; PR Newswire. (2004). Retrieved February 25, 2010, from http://www. highbeam. com/doc/1G1-123232449. html Baker, B. (2009). Chic-fil-A wins 6th drive-thru title. QSR Magazine. Retrieved February 19, 2010 from www. qsrmagazine. com/reports/drive-thru_time_study/ Franchise Opportunities Mall. (2010). Retrieved February 11, 2010, from 7-Eleven: http://www. franchiseopportunitiesmall. com/Best_Franchise_Opportunities. asp? ID=2682 Gillespie, E. M. (2005). Starbucks sees growing demand for drive-thru coffee. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from Web site: http://www. usatoday. com/money/ industries/food/2005-12-24-starbucksdrivethru_x. htm. Jacobs, R. F. & Chase, R. B. (2009). Operations and supply management: The core. New York, NY. McGraw-Hill Irwin. Jobs in DFW LocalHelpWanted-Continuous Improvement Manager Help Wanted ads-Continuous Improvement Manager Local Help Wanted-Continuous Improvement Manager Jobs-Continuous Improvement Manager Careers. (2010). Retrieved February 21, 2010, from http://www. localhelpwanted. net/dfw/job/Continuous-Improvement-Manager-Dallas-TX-75219-USA/lhw-e0-3741966/ Real Estate Require ments. (2010). Retrieved February 27, 2010, from http://www. 7-eleven. om/RealEstate/RealEstateRequirements/tabid/181/Default. aspx. Store retail information system. (2010). Retrieved February 23, 2010 from Web site: http://www. 7-eleven. com/NewsRoom/BackgroundInformation/ StoreRetailInformationSystem/tabid/159/Default. aspx. Appendices Service Process Flowchart7 Sales and Production Forecasting9-11 Individual Product Sales Changes due to Drive-Thru Window11 Breakeven Analysis Graphs12-13 Capacity Management Ã¢â¬â Decision Tree15 7-Eleven Current Store Layout20 7-Eleven Drive-Thru Prototype Design21
Friday, August 30, 2019
Living together, getting married and having children are all the important factors that contribute in creating a family. The Canadian family has, is and will face different types of challenges in the future. Families in Canada have changed as time has progressed. In this time period the Canadian family has faced a number of challenges. I believe this is due to the increase in divorce rates, same sex marriage and living together in common law. Depending on the situation within the family, families in Canada have found to be challenged.First of all I would like to bring out probably the most common challenge and factor which is making marriages unsuccessful, that being divorce. The divorce rate in Canadian families is increasing day by day from what it used to be. Divorce leads to a disturbance in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family when he/she files for one. The children of the divorced couples are not being raised up normally; moreover they are being raised up living with a single parent or living o ne week with the mother and one week with the father.The children are not getting the time and love from their parents which they would normally get if their parents lived together. In my opinion a family is a group of people involving a mother, father and their children living together in the same house, so if the parents of the children get divorced it causes that family to break when they no longer live with each other. Back in the day divorce was not that common as it is today, people would get married for life but now a days if couples get into a fight the first option that pops up in their heads is divorce.People nowadays are taking advantage of the divorce laws and are using them more commonly which is leading Canadian families challenged. Another challenge that Canadian families are facing these days is same sex marriage. When a couple of the same sex gets married together they are left with a challenge of having children together. To overcome this challenge most couples tak e the option of adopting children or having children through surrogacy, and some decide not to bring children in their lives at all.The couples that do decide to adopt children, the children are still not gifted with a mother and a father; moreover they could grow up having two mothers or two fathers. In this situation the children are not being raised up as they would be if they had both a father and a mother. On the other hand when same sex married couples decide not to adopt children and not bring them in their lives at all, this leads to their generation from further expanding. With all due espect to same sex marriage, same sex marriage is a challenge that families in our society are facing in the new era. On the other hand one other challenge that Canadian families are facing these days is the challenge of common law. Common law has become more common in the new world. Couples are moving in, living together, and having children without being married. Couples these days are spen ding more time living together before marriage than they are after marriage or they are breaking up even before getting to the extent of getting married.Common law mostly involves teen couples living or having children together, this is because teens are less mature and do not know what the responsibility of raising children together is, so often teens tend to break up with each other despite having children. Adults on the other hand tend to live together for years in common law and at some point when they do get married it may not last that long because they know each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s ups and downs because of all the time they have spent together. In this case common law is another crucial challenge that Canadian families are facing these days.Finally I would like to say Canadian families are continuing to change and face crucial challenges such as, divorce, same sex marriage and common law day by day. Living together, getting married and having children are all important factors tha t contribute in creating a family. If any one of these crucial factors gets disturbed then it leaves the families faced with challenges. If we fulfil all the factors that contribute in creating a family in the right way then it will leave our families with less of a challenge.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
First three chapters to edit - Essay Example The anxieties over quality, on the other hand, have necessitated the need to design online courses that meet the set minimum standards of quality and industry demands. It is on this basis that faculty-designers have emerged as critical a component in the development of online courses. Given the importance of faculty-designers, there is a need to ensure that these faculty-developers possess requisite skills and competencies that are crucial in maintaining the quality of online courses. This chapter presents the issues surrounding the skills, competencies and best practices for designing online courses. In addition to these issues, this chapter will also present the purpose of the research, research questions and hypotheses, justification and significance of the research, as well as limitations and assumptions for the research. Faculty designers try to employ the principles of instructional design that uses those tenets to design course materials. However, they are often made responsible for the creation, development, and management of online classes without any formal preparation for performing these tasks (Carliner and Driscoll, 2009). This can result in a practice where faculty-designers tend to create certain courses without possessing the basic instructional development skills and competencies in these areas. This problem is compounded since the professional and scholarly community has not yet identified the basic instructional design skills and competencies that the faculty-designers should possess before they are assigned the task of designing various courses. Such competencies and skills for faculty-designers developing online courses are embedded in instructional design theories related to the content expertise as well as their understanding of the concepts of education and instructional design (R eigeluth, 2012). These ideas are also associated with the conceptualization of how learning theories support adult learning. The rapid growth of online
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Prince Hall - Essay Example (Alexander & Rucker 243). Yet, in 1791, through the help of the British order, Hall became North AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s provincial grand master. Through his acquired power, Hall started to approve African American lodges in other cities in the U.S., like Providence, Philadelphia, and New York (Alexander & Rucker 243). The Prince Hall Masonic organizations tried to enhance community, interpersonal, and personal abilities, and to uphold charity, open-mindedness, and promote the wellbeing of all. Immediately after gaining his freedom, Hall had become a militant and visionary almost soon after as he, together with others, lobbied the Massachusetts Colonial Legislature, encouraging them to abolish slavery in the state. Hall passed away in 1807 and by that time African Masonic groups were spread all over cities in the Midwest and the Northeast, and numerous strong organizations were formed in the Upper South (Alexander & Rucker 243-4). Numerous black lodges were informally called Prince Hall organizations throughout HallÃ¢â¬â¢s
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Professional Values Ethics and Law for Child Nursing - Essay Example The paper seeks to evaluate the dangers and benefits of ethical theories in relation to the case study. The professional ethical theories include Deontology, Rights, Utilitarianism, Casuist, Virtue, Teleology and Care Ethics. The research further seeks to outline the effects of nursing principles towards professional accountability and responsibility. The principles include Justice, Paternalism, Least Harm and Fidelity. In addition, the research seeks to investigate how the Law affects health care practice through code of conduct relevant to the case study. The case study involve a dying baby who had undergone an unsuccessful heart operation and was placed at the heart lung machine where her parents had pleaded with the liaison nurse to allow them be with their baby in the OR, before she died. According to the rules of the Operating System no visitation was allowed in the area only the authorized practitioners. The nurse went ahead to enforce the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s regulations where she highlighted that the parents could only view the baby after she had died and her chest stitched back up. The baby died the same day without the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s presence where they returned the next morning to view the body. The nurse was disturbed from the experience and from the sorrowful mood of the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s, where she decided to visit the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s Director of ethics for consultation on the issue. According to Humber (2013), the medical nurse had the intuition of predicting the outcome of the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s condition and the consequence of her action. The theory stipulates that Angela had the choice of making an ethical decision that yielded the greatest beneficial outcome. A dying child greatly affects the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions. The nurse practitioner had the ethical duty to empathize with the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s who would never had the chance to see their child alive again. Among the benefit of the theory is
Monday, August 26, 2019
New Public Management - Essay Example This review will then investigate the observed impact of NPM on the health sector and the effects of adopting market-oriented concepts, as reported in a study conducted by the World Bank (p.13) Moreover, NPM will be a viable reference because it has been documented to influence the financial policies of many governments. Policy issues directly affect public institutions like hospitals because reduced funding restrictions - a reality in many countries and one of the benefits of the NPM approach - will ultimately have an effect at the operational level. That is, hospitals may be compelled to improve procedures and practices, especially in terms of resource allocation, but they must also strive to improve the level of customer satisfaction. The market orientation of the NPM model will be particularly helpful in this area. Thus, with NPM theories as basis, this review will proceed to investigate process level concepts that are also oriented towards efficiency (p.15), which include action research, clinical pathways, service redesign, and operations management. The final section (p.18) looks at several initiatives that aimed to improve operations and practices in hospitals and especially, in operating theatres. The sources cited in this review are summarized in Table 1. DisTable 1. Summary of Reviewed Literature Author/s Date Title Subject/Topic Baird 2004 The Global Influence of New Public Management: Case Studies from Africa Explains the use of NPM in several African countries, with special focus on the importance of capacity building, especially in developing countries where governance issues remain a major challenge. Barry-Walker 2000 The Impact of Systems Redesign on Staff, Patient, and Financial Outcomes Discusses the findings of a study introducing "inpatient bed consolidation" and "patient population reaagregation" in a U.S. hospital and how such change initiatives affect staff, patients, and financial performance. Borins 2000 New Public Management, North American Style Lists the characteristics of NPM and how it has influenced the governments of the U.S. and other developed countries in attempts to reform the public sector. Costello 2003 Action Research Provides a useful general reference for managers wanting to undertake action resarch, from planning to reporting. European Communities n.d. Increasing Institutional and Administrative Capacity Establishes the importance of institutional and administrative capacity in socio-economic development programmes, debating the impacts of NPM especially in developed countries. Khaleghian and Das Gupta 2004 Public Management and the Essential Public Health Functions Discusses attempts to improve the public sector and their impacts on providing health services, including adoption of NPM concepts. Mahaffey 2004 Optimizing Patient Flow in the Enterprise Explains how use of technology can enhance hospital operations and
Sunday, August 25, 2019
The Concept of Globalization. Main Effects of the Process of Globalization in the Contemporary World - Essay Example The paper outlines the growing importance of the globalization in the world of today, which is defined as the integration of the world economies by the way of lifting restrictions on trade and finance, and critically considers its advantages and disadvantages, which it brings to disparate in economic respect countries. Proponents of the globalization say that it is a positive force that is making the world a better place. In fact, they say, economic and social indicators show that the world's people are better off than they were before globalization. The solution to economies that are not sufficiently open to trade is more globalization, in the form of free trade, not less. As globalization went on, the plight of the world's poor has improved. The number of people, living in the poverty would undoubtedly be higher and the level of poverty deeper if not for the advances, such as open economies and technology transfers, brought about by globalization, they argue. Some people are totally opposed to globalization, claiming that, among other ill effects, it hinders the efforts of poor nations to climb out of poverty. They believe that the process of opening borders to trade and the free flow of money and ideas should be abandoned. Globalization has failed to deliver the promised benefits to the world's poor. There have been improvements in certain areas, such as health care and infant mortality rates in parts of the developing world, they concede, but, overall, the vast majority of wealth and opportunity still goes to a disproportionately small percentage of population. Although the common perception is that globalization is a new phenomenon, some economists and historians say that it has been taking place for centuries.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
A critical analysis of the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) - Essay Example The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) is a resource for early childhood care and education practitioners to support the needs of young children under their care. It sets standards for learning, development and care for children up to five years of age. EYFS provides a wide variety of information on child development to help practitioners understand how children grow and what they need to help them optimize their potentials (Tickell, 2011). The use of this resource will effectively enable early childhood settings to meet the key outcomes outlined in Every Child Matters and to ensure that high quality service is provided to the children. Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) In early childhood, caring for all children involves many considerations. One is to see each child at his or her own developmental level and create activities and opportunities appropriate to their particular levels. The child needs to develop holistically, meaning each developmental area is given attention to so g rowth and development as a whole person ensues. The crucial areas of development that need to be emphasized in early learning are Personal, social and emotional development; Communication and language Physical development (Department of Education, 2012). Aside from these major areas, the children also need to develop skills in literacy, mathematics, understanding the world and expressive arts and design (Department of Education, 2012) These are all linked together, as in development in one area affects the others. The practitioner needs careful planning and implementation of activities so that children under their care grow in all areas. The EFYS works around four essential themes namely: A unique child; positive relationships; enabling environments and learning and development (Department of Education, 2012). These themes are briefly explained as follows. Each child is born with his or her own set of talents and potentials, and these are meant to be developed all throughout his lif e. The practitioner is to help the child develop his or her potentials to the fullest by providing him with activities and experiences to hone his skills. If the child shows propensity for the arts, the practitioner allows him or her to indulge in creative activities of interest to the child (Tickell, 2011). EYFSÃ¢â¬â¢s theme of positive relationships enables children to grow up in environments that make them feel love and security from their homes or learning environments, making them grow up to be self-confident, self-propelling people. Supportive adults help children understand the emotions they undergo, especially if these feelings are negative and confusing to the child (anger, disappointment, jealousy, etc.). In being understood, the children themselves learn to be sensitive to othersÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings and provide the same support and understanding to them, creating a circle The key of positive relationships. The outcomes specified in Every Child Matters are met in such posit ive environments (Department of Education, 2012). The theme of provision of enabling environments for children play a key role in helping and guiding children in growing to be capable individuals. This entails a practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s keen observation of each child, as to his or her interests, skills, personality traits, etc. and get cues from the children themselves as to how they would like their learning to be structured. Careful planning of activities for children should consider important concepts and skills they should be learning at their developmental level. Again, this agrees with the constructivistsÃ¢â¬â¢ view of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢
Friday, August 23, 2019
Federal Reserve Board - Essay Example But when we talk about of United States which is world's largest economy then the monetary policy of the country also expands its impact on in form of economic and financial effects on other countries of the world. In shortest possible definition the main objective of a monetary policy is to look into various aspects of the economy of a nation ranging from inflation; economic output; to employment. The working of it could be understood by way it affects the demand i.e., is being parameterized in form of people's and firms' current tendency towards expenditure and spending on goods and services. In United States the Monetary policy matters relate to it are all conducted by the Federal Reserve System which is the central bank of America and the form of influences it makes on demand is mainly by raising and lowering of short-term interest rates (Dennisy, 2007). The responsibility of conducting a monetary policy lies in the hand of Fed's FOMC or Federal Open Market Committee. The FOMC comprises of 12 members out of which the seven members are from the board of Governors; the President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the rest four are the other Reserve Bank Presidents who occupy the seat in rotation. The Committee meets eight times a year in Washington, D.C. The remaining Reserve Bank Presidents provides all necessary inputs to the Committee's discussions on various issues. The Directors of each Reserve Bank has their own defined duty in form of contributions through recommendations about discount rates (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, 2004). Federal Open Market Committee in 2007 The FOMC amended its policy related to the Authorization for Domestic Open Market Operations on January 30, 2007 and directed the Federal Reserve Bank of New York so that various domestic policy directives could be adopted. The Bank has now been authorized to buy or sell U.S. Government Securities from or to securities dealers and foreign and international accounts maintained at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. This includes buying and selling of U.S. Government securities and obligations that are in direct obligations of, or have been fully guaranteed to principal and interest by, any agency of the United States, from dealers for the account of the System Open Market with process being competitive bidding. The authorization has been further expanded to ensure the conduct of open market operations through lending government securities to dealers to be determined by competitive bidding. The bank will also act as an assisting agent for foreign and international accounts maintaine d in the bank for short-term investments (The Federal Reserve Board, 2007). The FOMC while considering the necessity to carry out the various foreign currency directives has asked the Federal Reserve Bank of New York for System Open Markets Account. The bank has been granted further permission to purchase and selling of some foreign currencies in the form of cable transactions on the open market at home and abroad with foreign monetary authorities, with Bank of International Settlements, and with other international financial institutions. The currencies which have been considered for above mentioned transactions are Canadian Dollars, Danish Kroner, Euro, Pounds Sterling, Japanese Yen, Mexican Pesos, Norwegian Kroner, Swedish Kronor and Swiss
About post-classical network period of television (1980s- present) - Research Paper Example Various themes predicated in the show reveal a drastic shift in the values of families, individuals, also how women empowerment had begun as a struggle back in the era. Furthermore, the effect of social class system on the overall social blanker of the society is also apparent. Therefore, the paper will explore the dimension where Lorelai Gilmore had to go through a hard struggle her entire life for the sake of her brilliant yet angelic daughter Rory Gilmore as a single mom. Also, the paper will explore the educational aspects of the era explicating how the educational system is quite competitive not just in terms of brilliance but also in terms of class struggle. Therefore, the paper will aim at explaining transitions in the society over time by focusing on the two aspects highlighted above. The post classical network period was a period of immense experimentation with comparatively bolder themes. With the advent in technology and industrialization, the social change also followed where people started accepting the liberal mindset. Yet, that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t imply that there was absolutely no resistance. This was one of the reasons why TV shows started focusing on tabooed themes to explain the issues surrounding them. Gilmore Girls revolve around the central theme which narrates the story of a single mother struggling to nurture her daughter and raise her as an empowered individual (Diffrient & Lavery 21). Her daughter, Rory is an extra-ordinary student with a passion for reading and hopes to get into Harvard one day. Lorelei`s status conscious affluent parents didnÃ¢â¬â¢t approve of her lifestyle choice to raise her daughter as a single child, thus she left the comforts of her parent`s home and moved to a small-town with a simple life. Though both the mother and the da ughter love their simple lifestyle, yet Lorelei isn`t capable enough to financially support her daughter`s education and thus, she had to reach out to
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Memory Management Essay The difference between Windows and Linux memory management starts with understanding the requirements of memory management in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s multiprogramming systems. Memory management requirements are relocation, protection, sharing, local organization, and physical organization. These requirements play a vital role in the processing speed response when using the computer. Windows and Linux have several similarities in regards to memory management but also differ especially with Windows being a sophisticate system and Linux being open sourced. Ã¢â¬Å"Linux shares UNIX characteristics but has its own features and is very complexÃ¢â¬ (Stallings, 2012, p. 384). Linux virtual memory uses a three- level page structure. The first part is the page structure which is an active process having the size of one page. The entry goes to the page directory and the page directory must be in the main memory to be active. Next is the page middle directory which can span multiple pages. Each entry will point to one page of the table. Last is the page table and refers to one virtual page of the process. A virtual address is used consisting of four fields which are the index into the page directory, index into the page middle directory, index into the page table, and the offset in the selected page of memory. The table structure was designed for 64-bit Alpha processor and is independent. Linux uses the buddy system for efficiency of reading in and writing out pages to and from memory. The buddy system splits and merges pages which are allocated and deallocated in the main memory. The page replacement algorithm in Linux deals with a simple clock which gives each page an age variable. The more times the page is accessed, the age variable is increased. A page that is old would be replaced since it has not been accessed in quite a long time. Linux kernel memory allocation manages the main memory page frames which allocates and deallocates frames for the virtual memory management. When the minimum amount of allocation is less than a page, Linux uses a slab allocation for these smaller chunks making the system more efficient. Windows memory manager is designed to use 4 to 64 Kbytes page sizes and controls how memory is allocated. On 32-bit systems, the Windows processÃ shows a 32-bit address which allows 4 Gbytes of virtual memory for each process which half is for the operating system and half is for the virtual address space when running in kernel-mode. With the introduction of 64-bit, systems can run more efficiently with larger memory intensive programs. Windows paging can make use of the entire space which can then be brought into the main memory. The operating system manages the address in three regions; available references the address not currently used, reserved for setting aside the process through the virtual memory manager, and committed address for processes to access virtual memory page. When virtual memory is high, the processes increase, and when they are low, older pages are swapped out. In conclusion, Windows and Linux have a few similarities. Both swaps out older pages that are no longer needed to improve the processes Window memory management is more secure and performance orientated, but is more complex. Linux is simpler and easier to maintain but is not secured due to being open sourced and need improvement. Linux was originated in a hackerÃ¢â¬â¢s environment while Windows is in a commercial environment. Windows has more effort through design and Linus was favored for simplicity. Each one has their own positives and negatives and the final decision is what system is he and she more comfortable with. References Stallings, W. (2012). Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles (7th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Processes and Applications of Fermentation Hort-312 (1+1) Topic: Fermented Food Dr. Ananta Saikia Sir, Murchana Malakar Introduction Fermentation is the process of producing a fermented product by the mass culture of micro organisms involved in it . It is derived from the Latin word fevere meaning Ã¢â¬Å"to boilÃ¢â¬ . Biochemically, fermentation is a process in which an agent causes an organic substance to break down into simpler substances; especially, the anaerobic breakdown of sugar into alcohol. It is the oldest most which is the most economical method of preserving food . The local people have been using the microbes without knowing their effects to produce the fermented products . For household purpose, fermentation is followed with simple processing methods. Due to the lack of sterility, the end products often contain mixed microbial population . Fermentation promotes digestibility and improve the health of human beings . It promotes the shelf-life reducing volume, less cooking time and higher nutritive value. It helps in the detoxification of undesirable compounds such as phytates, polyphenols and tannins. It also enhances the aroma and flavour of the fermented food. For industrial purpose, it is carried out on a large scale for manufacturing of the product. But in the second phase Microbiology evolved as a science for the first time in the history of fermentation . Processes involved in fermentation:[7,13] Acetic Acid Fermentation: Acetobacter spp. is the main microorganism involved in this process. It aerobically converts the alcohol to acetic acid. Examples: Wine, Cider and melt honey. Lactic Acid Fermentation: It is carried out by lactic acid bacteria. Examples: Pickles, sauerkraut, kimchi Alcoholic fermentation: Yeast is the main micro organism involved in this process which yields ethanol. Example: Brandy, Beer, Whiskey Alkali fermentation: It occurs in case of fish and seeds which are used as condiment.Example: Fish sauce, bagoong. Types of fermented food: Cereal based fermented food: Cereal grains are considered to be on one of the most important source of carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and mineral. It improves the texture, aroma of the end product. Most common type of cereals (such as wheat, rice, sorghum or corn) is used for the preparation of fermented foods. The bacteria species involved includes Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, and Micrococcus. Fungi genera include Fusarium, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Trichothecium. The yeasts include Saccharomyces (Steinkraus, 1998). Table 1: Commonly used cereal based fermented food and beverages [1,4,5,9, 12]. Anarshe Rice India Ang-kak Rice South East Asia Bagni Millet Caucasus Banku Maize Ghana Bogobe Sorghum Botswana Brem Rice Indonesia Busa Rice Egypt Chee-fan Wheat China Chicha Maize Peru Chonju Rice Korea Dalaki Millet Nigeria Dhokla Rice/Wheat India Dosa Rice India Darassum Millet Mongolia Hamanatto Wheat Japan Idli Rice India/Srilanka Injera Wheat/Sorghum Ethiopia Jalebies Wheat flour India/ Nepal/ Pakistan Kanji Rice India Kaffir beer Kaffir corn South Africa Kisra Sorghum Sudan Lao-chao Rice China/ Indonesia Me Rice Vietnam Miso Rice and soybeans Japan/ China Nan Unbleached wheat flour India/ Pakistan Nasha Sorghum Sudan Ogi Maize/Sorghum Nigeria Puto Rice Philippines Pozol Maize Mexico Rabdi Maize India Sorghum Beer Sorghum/Maize South Africa Sake Rice Japan Takju Rice/Wheat Korea Torani Rice India Tape ketan Rice/ Cassava Indonesia Uji Maize/Sorghum Kenya Vada Ceral India Legume Based Fermented Foods: Pulses are the chief sources of proteins. The micro organisms involved in it are: Mucor sp., Aspergillus spp., Lactobacillus sp. , Saccharomyces sp. Table 2: Fermented foods of legumes . Aagya Soybean India Chee-fan Soybean China Dawadawa African locust bean Nigeria Kecap Soybean Indonesia Khaman Bengal gram India Meju Soybean Korea Natto Soybean Japan Soybean Milk Soybean China Tempeh Soybean Indonesia Waries Black gram India Fermented Milk Products: The fermented milk products have higher nutritive value, better keeping quality and it has a strong therapeutic potential. Micro organisms involved are: Lactobacillus sp, Saccharomyces sp, Acetobacter aceti, Yeast. Table 3: List of Fermented milk products  Buttermilk Bovine USA/ Australia Chhurpi Yak India Curd Bovine, Buffalo India Cultured cream Bovine USA Koumiss Horse, Mare, Camel Russia, Asia Kefir Bovine, Goat Russia Laktofil Bovine Sweden Lassi Bovine India Leben Ewe, Goat, Sheep Labenon, Iraq Quark Bovine Germany, Europe Viili Bovine Finland Yoghurt Bovine/ Goat Turkey Fermented Fish Meat Products: Meat and fish are the rich source of proteins. Fermentation helps in increasing the shelf life and also gives unique flavour and texture to the final product. It involves the micro organisms such as Actinomycetes, Pseudomonas, Yeast, Penicillium, Lactobacillus, and Micrococcus. Table 4: List of Meat and fish products  Bacon Cured Meat Europe Bagoong Fish Philippines Fish sauce Fish South East Asia Ham Meat Europe Katsuobushi Fish Japan Fermented Fruits Vegetables: Fermentation is the oldest method of extending the shelf life of perishable products. Table 5: List of fermented fruits and vegetables  Gundruk Radish India Kimchi Radish Korea Olive Olive Spain Pickle Vegetable India Yan-taozih Peach China Sauerkraut Cabbage Internatinal Soidon Bamboo shoot India Yan-tsai-shin Broccoli Taiwan Benefits of Fermented Foods: Variation in the types of fermented products Important ingredients can be prepared from it Quality is increased to a great extent. Preservation increases the shelf life. It helps in the recovery of a disease free life. Raw materials can be digested to a great extent. Conclusion: Fermented products which are associated with several cultural and social aspects contain a wide range of probiotics. The tactics which are practised by the ethnic groups reveal the correlation of nature with the people including the micro flora. Value added methods are practised by genetic improvement, strains of micro organisms, using of immobilised systems which will lead to industrialization of the food products. Hence, the fermented products can be maximised and commercializing the technological development in terms of financial support by the governing agencies. References:  ] Adams, M. R. (1998). Fermented weaning foods. In J. B. Wood (Ed.),Ã Microbiology of fermented foods (pp. 790Ã¢â¬â811). London: BlackieÃ Academic.  Billings, T. (1998). On fermented foods. Available: http://www.living-foods.com.  Caplice, E., Fitzgerald, G. F. (1999). Food fermentations: role ofÃ microorganisms in food production and preservation. InternationalÃ Journal of Food Microbiology, 50, 131Ã¢â¬â149.  Chavan, J. K., Kadam, S. S. (1989). Critical reviews in food scienceÃ and nutrition. Food Science, 28, 348Ã¢â¬â400.  Harlander, S. (1992). Food biotechnology. In J. Lederberg (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of microbiology (pp. 191Ã¢â¬â207). New York: Academic Press  Jeyaram, K., Singh A., Romi, W., Devi, A.R., Singh, W.M., Dayanithi, H., Singh, N.R. and Tamang, J.P. 2009. Traditional fermented foods of Manipur. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 8(1): 115-121.  Modi, H.A.(2012). Aavishkar Publishers, Distributors, Jaipur, pp-1-203.  Nout, M.J.R. and Sarkar, P.K. 1999. Lactic acid food fermentation in tropical climates. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 76: 395-401.  Sankaran, R. (1998). Fermented food of the Indian subcontinent. InÃ J. B. Wood (Ed.), Microbiology of fermented foods (pp. 753Ã¢â¬â789).Ã London: Blackie Academic and Professional.  Sekar, S. and Mariappan, S. 2007. Usage of traditional fermented products by Indian rural folks and IPR. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 6 (1): 111120.  Sharma, A. and Kapoor, A.C. 1996. Level of antinutritional factors in pearl millet as affected by processing treatments and various types of fermentation. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 49: 241-252.  Soni, S. K., Sandhu, D. K. (1990). Indian fermented foods: microbiologicalÃ and biochemical aspects. Indian Journal of Microbiology,Ã 30, 135Ã¢â¬â157.  Srivastava, R.P. Kumar, S(2002). Fruit and Vegetable Preservation.CBS Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, pp-81-82.  Stanbury, P.F. 1999. Fermentation Technology. In Stanbury, P. F., A. Whitaker, and S. J. Hal (Eds), Principles of Fermentation Technology, 2nd Edition, p 1-24. UK: Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford.  Steinkraus, K. H. (1998). Bio-enrichment: production of vitamins inÃ fermented foods. In J. B. Wood (Ed.), Microbiology of fermentedÃ foods (pp. 603Ã¢â¬â619). London: Blackie Academic and Professional.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
A Case Study On Computer Viruses Information Technology Essay In this project we have been asked to consider and discuss the different aspects of the above statement. We have asked to create a case study of an organization to help with our case and we have chosen for our case study to look at North Lanarkshire Council. The case study will be a report based on 2 interviews and a short look at the council and its history and what services it offers. There will also be a critical review arguing as to the rights and wrongs of the statement and finally a conclusion in which we will be a brief summary of what we have discovered during the report. Before we can begin to discuss the statement, we should take a quick look at exactly what a computer virus and phishing are and also take a quick look at their history. The computer virus was so named as it has similar properties as a human virus in the way they can pass form computer to computer and in that they need a host to survive. The first viruses were created during the 1980s, although there programs that worked on the same principle created maybe as early as the late 1960s. The first program of this type to appear on a computer other than the one it was written for was called Elk Cloner and was written by Rich Skrenta in 1982 and surprisingly was written to attack the Apple operating system as today viruses are very rarely written with Apple in mind. The most common virus of that period was written to infect PCs and was called the Brain and was written by two brothers Basit and Amjad Farooq Alvi in 1986. Both these virus were spread by floppy disks and since then the virus concept has grown and become more sophisticated. (antiviruswear.com, 2010) There are 3 main types of common virus today Worms Trojan Horse Email Virus A worm uses security flaws and computer networks to replicate itself. They can be very complex programs and once on an infected machine, will search for other flows to exploit. A Trojan Horse, named after the famous wooden horse in Homers Iliad. The virus disguises as itself as another file, e.g. a sound file with a .wav extension and once on the host computer does not reproduce but will make the host computer susceptible to attack by third parties by opening ports and can be a major threat to the users personal data. Am email virus once opened on an infected machine will send copies of itself to everyone on the email clients contacts list. They payload can also include Worms and Trojan Horses. (spamlaws.com, 2009)The term Phishing appears to have been first coined in 1996 and was applied to hackers who were stealing AOL passwords. It is now a broader term applied to a form of social engineering where the angler (phisher) throws a hook by maybe sending an spam email pretending to be from the recipients bank stating there has been a breach of security and asking for the customer to enter their password and user name on a website that is linked to on the email. This website may look like the persons online banking website but is a fake set up to steal the user names and passwords and allow the phishers to then gain access to the persons bank account details and transfer monies to other accounts. (allspammedup) Review For-end user protection Software-every user should have security software installed on their computer the software will help protect your computer from viruses, worms and other harmful programs. You should scan your computer on a regular basis and also update your operating system. anti virus anti spyware anti malware firewall botnet Antivirus you must update regularly to benefit for the latest threats. A computer virus is a computer program with the intent of copying itself and contaminating a computer. Viruses can boost their chances of spreading to other computers by infecting files on a group of networks or a file structure that is accessed by another computer. You need antivirus software to prevent, detect and remove viruses from your computer. There are quite a lot of different types of viruses like worms and Trojan horse.Millions of computer users suffered billion of dollars in losses from real attack experienced over the internet. Most of the damages were caused by fast moving computer viruses and worms that travelled by email (Simson, 2002) Antispyware- Spyware is a sort of malware that can be setup on computers and gather small pieces of information over time and the users has no awareness that it is there. The existence of spyware is usually concealed from the consumer, and it can be hard to notice. Normally, spyware is secretly installed on the consumers own computer. Now and then spywares is like a key logger and is installed by the vendor of a joint, company, or public computer with the intention to secretly watch other users. Anti malware- A computer worm is a self reproducing malware computer program. It makes a computer network send duplicates of itself to computers that are on the same network and it will do it with no user intervention. This is due to weak security on the computer. Firewall-A firewall is to prevent unauthorized access to or from a network. Firewalls can also be implemented in both hardware and software they prevent unauthorized internet users from accessing a private network. All messages leaving the intranet pass through the firewall. Botnet- Once a solitary machine inside a network has become part of the botnet it will put other computers on the same network at risk. The infected computer is able to read emails and email addresses and copying files and also able to record keystrokes and send spam as well as capturing screen shots. Phishing- You could be sent an e-mail wrongly claiming to be a recognized genuine company in an attempt to scam the user into giving away their private information that will then be used for identity theft. The email will guide the user to visit a web site where they are asked to input their personal information, like your credit card details, passwords and bank account numbers. The website is a phony website and is only set up to steal the users information. Access- Its up to the end user if they want people accessing data so their privacy is in their hands, it is up to the user who they allow access to their computer. They should only allow people they trust to protect their computer with any personal information that is received or collected. Your personal information is under your control your privacy is your property so be aware of what information you store on your computer. Naivety is not an excuse, attackers will take advantage of a computers vulnerability. Legitimate companies will not ask for personal information in an email. Hardware like your router use password protection to constantly secure your wireless connection and will only allow named computers that you know access to the network. Awareness-Every user should be aware of the threats that is out there and what they can do. They should be aware of the different types of viruses and spyware and of what phishing is and what the stakes are. There is your privacy, time, money and your computer. Credit card fraud is on the increase and identity theft also. Your children are exposed to pornographic material and can be targeted by pedophiles. You also need to be aware of shopping when using your credit card most magstripe cards conform to ISO standard that the card contains three tracks of data referred to as track 1,2,3 the majority of magstripe cards contains no security measures to protect the data stored on the card (Stuart, 2009) Education-Most people are not aware of installing software to stop viruses, they have never been taught that your computer needs to be maintained and that there are viruses and worms they dont know of and the damage they can cause. You would not leave your home without locking your door so why leave a personal computer without protecting it. New users and children should be educated before being allowed access to a computer. Naivety is a weapon used by malware and phishers and children and teens are targeted, parents should take steps as well, there is a parental control that will help block websites and file downloads. Computer virus traps over 2,000 tourists on Russia-chinese border Over 2,000 Russian tourists were stranded in the Chinese town of Heihe on the Russian-Chinese border after a computer virus paralyzed the borders electronic pass entry system (Alexey, 2010) Internet service providers are facing an ever increasing amount of pressure to make sure their networks are virus and phishing free-not only would this be advantageous to their customers, but also very beneficial for the internet in general. Against-end user protection With the escalation of zombie-fed threats like phishing, securing the consumers PCs should no longer be down to the user themselves, the internet service providers should in this day and age be protecting the Internet traffic they are providing. ISPs should be taking more responsibility to monitor what is passing through their networks more closely. A zombie computer is a PC that has been secretly hacked, this then allows an outside person to control the computer with the intentions to infect, copy, corrupt and for erasing the hard drive. The hacker can then install tools that will store everything that is typed into the PC, this includes passwords, usernames and credit card and bank account details. Once this information is in the hands of the hackers it can be used for identity theft, committing fraud or sold on to the highest bidder. Related topics There has been a huge rise in cases that involve malicious code, also referred to as bot code that infects computers turning them into zombies, from April to June this year the number of reported cases have quadrupled to 13000. ISPs have been doing somethings to combat the threats of bot code by providing customers with online help on how to keep their PCs secure and some apply spam and virus filters for email as bot code is quite often spread through instant message worms, email and also through Trojans hidden in spam. The ISPs should however be offering a greater protection against these infestations than by just trying to control the threats from e-mail. Getting filtering to work effectively and properly takes a vast amount of time, patience, resources and money. Because the people writing the malware get better and better on a constant basis, it is a never ending struggle to keep up to pace with them so that filtering works. Some Internet service providers are using a technique called port 25 blocking to halt zombie computers that are connecting through their network sending out junk emails, this allows only emails that comes from its own server to be sent out, and this then helps eliminates spam that originates from another server. But those steps dont appear to be enough to tackle the threat of zombies, according to some experts. To take down zombies, ISPs should monitor their networks closer for traffic generated by the compromised PCs, said Dmitri Alperovitch, research engineer at CipherTrust, a security vendor in Alpharetta, USA.ISPs allow these machines to communicate with the rest of the world. They have the power to do a lot about the zombie threat, and they should be doing a lot about it Alperovitch said.A start for Internet companies would be for them to participate more actively in security groups and to use data on zombies collected by third-party security companies such as CipherTrust, he said. ISPs should monitor their networks more closely for anything suspicious, the ISPs should also be improving customer education and possibly even providing their customers with Anti-virus, Anti-spyware and firewalls for their own machines. If the ISPs were to provide customers with all the necessary software to protect themselves then there should no longer be any problems, as long as the customer uses the protection. Maybe the ISPs should enter in their contracts with customers that they will provide the software and if the customer chooses not to use it or take other preventative measures their internet connection will be cut off. If the ISPs were to do their part in helping to protect their customers then naivety in people using the internet should not be an excuse in this day and age, there has been enough cyber crime and virus and it has also been about long enough now that it is no longer excusable for people not to be protecting themselves while surfing the net. There are danger s in most things we do in life and we are expected to take preventative measures, if we go out for a walk we put shoes on to protect our feet, if we go out for a drive we put our seatbelt on and if we surf the net we should also protect ourselves in advance. We are not allowed to drive a car on the road if it is not roadworthy so maybe we should not be allowed to surf the net if our computer is not properly equipped. Although customers can be encouraged to keep their PCs clean with the threat of disconnection, the pressure should be on the ISPS to take more responsibility to tackle any threats coming through their network. With the amount of threats on the increase, ISPs should be taking a more hands on approach, as the hands-off method has been proven not to work. (1) Dmitri Alperovitch, research engineer at CipherTrust, a security vendor in Alpharetta (news.cnet.com, 2010) Case Study North Lanarkshire Council For our case study we chose North Lanarkshire Council, there were two reasons for this, the first being that they are a large organization with a huge computer infrastructure that would allow us to speak to a qualified IT specialist and also an end user to get both views across and the second reason being one of our team had previously worked there and was confident he would get the interviews arranged with the minimum of fuss. North Lanarkshire Council is the fourth largest local Authority in Scotland employing over 18,000 staff and serving a population of 321,000 people mainly in the following towns Airdrie, Bellshill, Coatbridge, Cumbernauld, Kilsyth, Motherwell, Shotts, Wishaw and their surrounding districts. The council is split into 5 key service areas: Finance and Customer Services incorporating all finance and IT services (including housing benefits and rebates) as well as public access via first stop shops, customer contact centre and website. Corporate Services which includes central support unit, human resources, legal services, design and property services. Environmental Services including planning and development, roads and transportation and protective services amongst others. Housing and Social Work services Learning leisure Services which includes education and community education services. The nature of this case study will dictate we concentrate on Finance and Customer Services, and in particular the government and development division which includes the IT function within the council and we will get a flavour as to how it protects its end users from Virus and Phishing attacks. The finance department has many functions and these include council tax, purchasing and debtors, housing benefits and rebates and as you can see there is much personal and financial data to be protected within even this small selection of councils services. If we add in the data that the social work also has to protect then we can see the security has to be comprehensive. We will now take a look at the interviews. Interviews overview We had chosen to contact North Lanarkshire Council to see if it was possible to interview 2 of their employees for the project. We decided to contact Alex Mitchell, Assistant Service Delivery Manager, as one of our team had already worked quite closely with him in the past when he worked for the North Lanarkshire Council IT Department. Alex agreed in principle and asked we email him 2 sets of questions one aimed at the end user and the other aimed at someone who would be more aware of the security measures in place from the IT section. He duly replied and said that the head of IT Security, Kenny Yates would be happy to meet for an interview and also gave us the name of an end user, namely a Lesley Bone who was happy to answer the end user questions. Due to adverse weather conditions it became very difficult to arrange the interviews and in the end Lesley emailed her answers to us and we carried out a telephone interview with Kenny. Happily, they were both fairly frank and gave a good indication of how the council deals with computer security and how it protects the end user. As was said earlier there were 2 sets of questions as some questions were asked to both people and others didnt make sense to ask the individual concerned so were more tailored as to an end user or the more technical question. The results were as follows. Lesley showed that as an end user she had an awareness of threats and had security in place in the house but was very vague as to what to do if she was affected by one and it seemed to be apparent that when given these questions she realized that maybe security is something she should look into and give more thought to in general. Kenny on the other hand gave us a great insight as to how difficult a job it is to protect an organisation such as NLC. He showed that it was not just down to the councils duty of care to its employees to protect them and the data they hold but there are many legal requirements some of which also get audited that have to be followed and can result in fines and removal from government secure networks if that audit is failed. He also said that awareness training is now taking place and this seemed to tie in as Lesley had said she had received no specific training as such but there had been a responsible use policy available for a long time. The main issues for the council as Kenny sees as the growth of remote and home working and as users have more scope to use unauthorized equipment on council networks and he also said naivety is the main cause of infection in council equipment. Finally when asked what was the main threats he said that spam and email type worm viruses are the main concern and social engineering techniques are getting more sophisticated but the main threat was could be lack of investment due to recent cutbacks and this could leave the council open to attack. The full interviews can be read. See appendices. Conclusion We were asked to comment and discuss the following statement It is up to end-users to protect themselves sufficiently from threats such as viruses and phishing they are responsible, naivety is not an excuse. And here is the conclusion our team has come up with. Firstly the user has a degree of responsibility, a home user especially must at least have the awareness that these threats exist, what they are, what they do and must know and carry out the minimum steps to protect themselves by at least installing a full security suite on all pcs and also making sure that anyone with internet access has the same awareness. Also they should be wary as to who has access and should protect their computers and wireless devices with a secure password. There is also a lot going on in the background that the end user is not aware of and this is also helping to protect them from threats, from working groups, the law and government acts and even their banks and retailers to their Internet service Provider and the security software writers. They are all working hard to minimize the effects of virus and phishing. In an organisation it is much different and the end user has very little to do to protect themselves as we saw in the interviews. That job is taken on by the IT department and it is a very difficult job to protect an organisation. Due to legal obligations there has to be very tight security, especially in organisations like the one we looked at North Lanarkshire Council and surprisingly it turned out that the main source of protection turned out to be the amount of investment made in it and keeping up to date as everything moves so fast in the IT world and if the organisations dont keep up they will get caught out. Finally is naivety an excuse, the answer has to be a resounding no, it appears to be one of the main causes of infection and more so it is also the main tool of the people who write the virus or use their social engineering tools in the phishing attacks. Bibliography Alexey, K. (2010, 04 19). WorldComputer virus traps over 2,000 tourists on Russian-Chinese border. Retrieved from rianovosti: http://en.rian.ru/world/20100419/158646482.html allspammedup. (n.d.). allspammedup. Retrieved from allspammedup: http://www.allspammedup.com/2009/02/history-of-phishing/ antiviruswear.com. (2010). antivirus. Retrieved from antivirus: http://www.antivirusware.com/articles/history-computer-viruses.html news.cnet.com. (2010). news.cnet.com. Retrieved from news.cnet.com: http://news.cnet.com/ISPs-versus-the-zombies/2100-7349_3-5793719.html#ixzz16FkK89Lv Simson, G. (2002). web security,privacy and commerce. cambridge: o,reilly. spamlaws.com. (2009). spamlaws. Retrieved from spamlaws: http://www.spamlaws.com/virus-comtypes.html Stuart, M. (2009). hacking exposed 6. new york: mcgraw.
Monday, August 19, 2019
1: Shock-Denial: This stage is when the patient first hears about his/her illness, and this is where the patient is saying "no, not me" and "it can't be me". During this time they will also ask a numerous amount that "is the results wrong", or "could you check my results again please". 2: Rage/Anger: There are two things to remember when dealing with this stage, which is that; anger is never personal, its more generalised. This means that no matter what, the patient never blames the people around them, but prefers to blame her/himself, or sometimes the whole world. Another part of the Rage/Anger stage is the "Why me" mini stage. This constitutes the patient to ask the people around him/her, but more prominently God. This behavior leads up to the bargaining stage. 3: Bargaining: This stage is when the patient has accepted his/her fate temporarily. This is so as it may seem that s/he is under control so s/he can bargain, more easily sway the recipient. The most usual case of bargaining is with God, for example "If you let me live one more day, ill become a good Christian and go to church everyday". These patients never really do what they promised. They maybe try to bargain with a member of the hospital staff, as well. This is not the final peace, only a temporary truce. 4: Depression: - Reactive This mini-stage is when the patient starts to feel despair because s/he can't hold or see in some cases their kids, or s...
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Argentina, Soccer, and Racism Soccer in Argentina, is an important way of life, for most young people, it is the only way of life. Children would clear pastures (fields) of rocks, and mark the goals off with stones. The people were so poor that there was no ball, they used women's stockings all wrapped up together. From a very young age the children were taught to play for the love of the game, nothing else. For these young children, Argentine soccer was a way of life, not just a sport, it defined who these people were. More than 85% of the people that live in Argentina are of white European decent. 15% are a mix between European and Indigenous people, better know as 'Mestizos.' During the colonial period Argentina consisted of a large black population, but as the 19th century came about the population dwindled to a few thousand. The reason for this decline in the black population was due to many things: There were many wars which mostly blacks participated in, racially missed marriages took place, because there was a shortage of black men, disease and also the slave trade. "Overall, however, the substantially reduced numbers of Afro-Argentines Ã¢â¬â by some accounts the population totals only a few thousand Ã¢â¬â have enabled Argentina to deny the historic relevance of blacks and portray theirs as a white nation free of racism. An article appearing in The Montreal Gazette in 1998 quotes a Buenos Aires museum director's response to the possibility of an Afro-Argentine exhibit: "We hav e too many important events and personalities to show. We can't waste space putting things that don't have any relevance to our history." The country's self-image coexists with continued manifestations of racism. The same article explains that when the Argentine soccer team was to play either the Brazilian or Nigerian team in the Olympic finals, a sports newspaper ran the headline, "Bring on the Monkeys," eliciting protests from the governments of both potential opponents. As of the late 1990s efforts by scholars like Andrews, Goldberg, Chace, and others seek to confront such persistent racism and ensure that the historic significance of Afro-Argentines is not forgotten."(Roanne Edwards) Soccer is one of the largest sports in the world, and grosses $250 billion dollars a year. The organization know as FIFA, promotes the "shared common values that transcend culture, social division and racial differences.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Paris in the l9th century was anything but beautiful; the City of Lights was a city of disparity; graceful monuments, historic buildings and slum dwellings, sat side by side. The narrow streets were catch-alls for chamber pots that were emptied into the streets from windows, the sewer system was inadequate, for a city with a million inhabitants, and prompting extremely unhealthy conditions that bred disease and only one out of five households had running water.This statement from Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a Genevan philosopher depicts a snapshot picture of Old Paris, Ã¢â¬Å"Entering through the faubourg Saint Marceau, I saw only small, dirty and stinking streets, ugly black houses, an air of filth, poverty, beggars, carters, sewing women, women hawking tisanes and old hatsÃ¢â¬ (British library. ) All of these issues would be Ã¢â¬Å"historyÃ¢â¬ with the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s modernization done at an unprecedented pace by Baron Georges-Eugene Haussmann. Baron Haussmann was born, in Paris, o n March 27th, 1809. He was educated at theCollege Henry IV, studied law, while simultaneously taking classes at the Conservatoire de Paris, because he was a good musician. He diverted from being a lawyer, turning his focus on architecture, becoming a civil engineer and career administrator. Mr. Haussmann was appointed sous-prefet (state representative) of Nerac, a commune of the Lot-et-Garonne department in southwestern France, in l830. He advanced quickly in the civil service venue; in l853 he was appointed the prefet of the Seine Department, (department in France is similar to a county) and remained in that position until l870.During this time period, Baron Haussmann was made senator in l857, grand cross at the Legion dÃ¢â¬â¢honneur, a premier order of France, in l862, and a member of the Academy of Fine Arts in l867. (wikipedia) He died on January 11, l891 in Paris, leaving a continuous and evolving legacy. The BaronÃ¢â¬â¢s name is preserved on the Boulevard Haussmann and in the very core of the Ã¢â¬Å"City of Lights. Ã¢â¬ Now that I have given a brief, biographical summary of Mr. HaussmannÃ¢â¬â¢s life, here is a detailed look at his accomplishments, historical impact on urbanism and constant influence in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society.Emperor Napoleon III, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and the last monarch to rule France, wanted to be acknowledged as a great communal engineer. He was partial to helping the poor, working class people of Paris and desperately wanted to shape the city in to a progressive, healthy environment. There was also a safety issue, the Emperor needed to address; it was imperative that he reduce the ability of future revolutionaries to defy the government, by benefiting on the medieval maze of streets to easily form barricades. Devising wider streets for logical maneuvers, would allow battalions and artillery to circulate effortlessly.Napoleon III rightly chose, the best civil engineer in Paris, Baron Haussmann to implement the recons truction of his capital. The Emperor let Haussmann maintain substantial executive power and extensive finances with this project. Ultimately, over a decade and a half he spent 2,115,000,000 francs, the equivalence of 1. 5 billion in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s currency. Napoleon also protected Haussmann from the myriad of critics, this was fundamental for his success. Paris would undergo a major transformation and people had two different views of Haussmann; one as a man who would demolish Ã¢â¬Å"oldÃ¢â¬ Paris , and the other as a man who would create a Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ Paris. Haussmanization is what this massive undertaken was dubbed, its actual definition being, Ã¢â¬Å"the creative destruction of something for the betterment of society,Ã¢â¬Å" (wiktionary). The criticism the Baron received was that specific, ParisianÃ¢â¬â¢s were troubled by the destruction of buildings, including whole neighborhoods. In theyÃ¢â¬â¢re opinion, there was no Ã¢â¬Å"betterment,Ã¢â¬ the wide streets had a diminutive purpose, except for being anti-riot streets, and all Haussmann did for the poor areas was to build encompassing boulevards from which they could be subjugated (British lib.) Another, subject he was disparaged for, was his methods of financing the projects, which included using his connections with realtors. Haussmann would allow them to purchase property along the new boulevards in exchange for an exuberant profit. This issue ignited an intense political controversy and even though the allegation were never proven , it eventually led to the BaronÃ¢â¬â¢s dismissal as the prefet, on January 5, l870. Napoleon III had no choice if he was to increase the approval rating of this regime.Parisians who viewed HaussmannÃ¢â¬â¢s modernization of Paris as positive, and new he would be providing a much needed service to the city, far out numbered the opposition. Most of the people perceived the streets as they actually were; unsanitary, with garbage and waste left by a faulty sewer system, crowded, damp, shanties covered in mud, and confusing. The narrow streets, with no sidewalks, discouraged prospective customers from going to shops, and during ParisÃ¢â¬â¢s recurrent spates of civil disorder, made it easier to form barricades. Haussmannization would deliver a Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ Paris, a healthy, moreorganized, safer city. Baron HaussmannÃ¢â¬â¢s first task was to create a detailed map of Paris, this would be the basis of his work. He then installed wood towers throughout the city, taller than surrounding buildings to serve as triangulation points in the surveying process. This was an advanced engineering process, theory is still use today. Triangulation is finding coordinates and the distance of a point by calculating the length of different sides of a triangle. Devising the towers, for this purpose, was ingenious. The transformation was now underway, using 1500 architects and over 60,000 workers.Paris was deemed the Ã¢â¬Å"largest construction site in th e world,Ã¢â¬ and would hold that title for two decades (France monthly). Three quarters of the Ile de la Cite, was destroyed to construct a central area for the Palais de Justice, police headquarters and barracks. Ile de la Cite is one of two islands in the Seine River, the other is Ile Saint-Louis, is the center of Paris and where the city was founded (wikipedia). Approximately 15,000 homes were pulled down and the only buildings untouched were; Notre Dame, the Saint-Chapelle, Conciergie and the Palais de Justice.HaussmannÃ¢â¬â¢s beautification of Paris, includes the star-shaped Place de lÃ¢â¬ Etoile, which is a large urban junction with a meeting point of twelve straight avenues, around the Arc de Triomphe, several new parks, gardens and the planting of over 100,000 trees. The Baron admired the large and central London parks, such as the Hyde and Regent Parks, and decided to created two comparable ones, . most notably the Bois de Boulogne, and the Bois de Vincennes. The Bar on built or rebuilt several market, the most famous redesigned market was the Les Halles, the first major building project to use iron-frame construction.This material allowed for improved control of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s food supplies and lessening of health hazards (SafariX). Another famous redesign was the Palais Garnier, commonly known as Opera de Paris, and named after its architect, Charles Garnier, who was chosen by the Baron to supervise the project. Mr. Garnier was instructed to build a 2nd theatre for the famous Parisian Opera and Ballet Companies. Legend says that Napoleon IIIÃ¢â¬â¢s wife asked Garnier if it would be built in Greek or Roman style and he replied, Ã¢â¬Å"It is in the Napoleon III style, Madame! Ã¢â¬Å" (msn. Encarta) Haussmann imposed a regulationthat required all new buildings to have a standardized height and design, this gave modern Paris characteristic landscape. HaussmannÃ¢â¬â¢s plan continued with organizing the city by numbering districts and houses. ParisianÃ¢â¬â¢s lives were made easier with the numeration. Wide, straight, new boulevards with commanding facades, converging at major junctions, marked by monuments, public buildings and points of significance such as city gates or railway stations, were made to facilitated traffic movement, eliminate cramped streets, and provide proficient access for army troops from the provinces to come into the city,if needed. Baron HaussmannÃ¢â¬â¢s implemented a railway network, with six new railroads stations, operating outside the city, improving transportation and directly contributing to a flourishing economic environment. The railways contributed to the development of coal mining and the steel industry in France, bringing theyÃ¢â¬â¢re economy into a contemporary age of large scale free enterprise. The design of the streets combined with the new public transportation allowed Parisians an easy access to the city and its shops, museums, theatre etc., encouraged people to flaunt their new wealth. Probably the most imperative part of the Ã¢â¬Å"modernizationÃ¢â¬ of Paris was the purification and decontamination of their ancient sewer system. A complete renovation was imperative to instill healthy conditions in the city. Haussmann named engineer Eugene Belgrad, Director of Water and Sewers of Paris, who attacked the problem by creating Ã¢â¬Å"sort of a city under the city,Ã¢â¬ The system harnessed underwater springs, some over 100 kilometers from Paris, then brought fresh, clean water by aqueducts to flush out the waste (France Monthly).The sewer system, although underground, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t go unobserved, Haussmann ensured that it became a showpiece, even providing transportation for their viewing, the system, to this day, is considered a tourist attractioin. Baron Haussmann and Napoleon IIIÃ¢â¬â¢s architectural strategy for the modernization of Paris is largely responsible for the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s present appearance and for the groundwork of current and almos t certainly, future designs. The BaronÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of a city came into fruition, making Paris one of the most magnificently beautiful cities, a formidable economic power, with much healthier living conditions.Haussmann still continues to inspire architectural design. One example is the City Beautiful Movement, a progressive reform movement in North American architect, in the1800Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s, its primary objective was to revamp poverty-stricken urban environments. Ã¢â¬Å"Haussmannian Revolution,Ã¢â¬ a term used because, for the first time in history, under an emporer, a single man systematically modernized a city on such a mammoth scope (France Monthly). Work Cited British Library, An Imperial Capital: Baron HaussmannÃ¢â¬â¢s Transformation of Pariswww. mapforum. com/15blmap. htm France Monthly, Baron Haussmann, and the Transformation of Paris, 2006 www. francemonthly. com/n/1202/index. php MSN. Encartam, Paris (city, France)-MSN Encarta 2007 http//Encarta. msn . com/encylopedia SafariX, Haussmannization and Ostentation http//www. safarix. com/0131932934/ch15lev1sec2 Wikipedia, Baron Haussman, 2 April 2007 www. widipedia. org/wiki/Baron_Haussmann Wikitionary, Etymology, 8 December 2006 http//en. wikitionary. org