Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Marketing startegies of kfc Essay Example for Free

Marketing startegies of kfc Essay Harland Sanders was born in 1890 and raised on a farm outside Henryville, Indiana. His father died when he was five years old, forcing his mother to work at a canning plant, and leaving her eldest son to care for his two younger siblings. After he reached seven years of age, his mother taught him how to cook. After leaving the family home at the age of 12, Sanders passed through several professions, with mixed success. In 1930, he took over a Shell filling station on U. S. Route 25 just outside North Corbin, a small city on the edge of the Appalachian Mountains. It was here that he first served to travelers the recipes that he had learned as a boy: fried chicken and other dishes such as steaks, country ham, and pancakes. Originally using his own dining room table, in 1934, he purchased the larger filling station on the other side of the road and expanded to six tables By 1936, this had proved successful enough for Sanders to be given the honorary title of Kentucky colonel by Governor Ruby Laffoon. The following year he expanded his restaurant to 142 seats, and added a motel he purchased across the street, naming it Sanders Court Cafà ©. Sanders was dissatisfied with the 30-minute duration it took to prepare his chicken in an iron frying pan, but he refused to sacrifice quality by deep frying the product. If he pre-prepared the chicken in advance of an order, there was inevitably wastage. In 1939, the first commercial pressure cookers were released onto the market, predominantly designed for steaming vegetables. Sanders bought one, and modified it into a pressure fryer, which he then used to fry chicken. As well as reducing production time to be comparable with deep frying, the new method produced flakier, moister chicken. In 1940, Sanders finalized what came to be known as his Original Recipe of 11 herbs and spices. Although he never publicly revealed the recipe, he admitted to the use of salt and pepper, and claimed that the ingredients stand on everybodys shelf. After being recommissioned as a Kentucky colonel in 1950 by Governor Lawrence Wetherby, Sanders began to dress the part, growing a goatee and wearing a black frock coat (later switched to a white suit), a string tie, and referring to himself as Colonel. His associates went along with the title change, jokingly at first and then in earnest, according to biographer Josh Ozersky. History KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken) is a fast food restaurant chain which specializes in fried chicken and is headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky. It is the worlds second largest restaurant chain overall (as measured by sales) after McDonalds, with over 18,000 outlets in 120 countries and territories as of December 2012. The company is a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, a restaurant company which also owns the Pizza Hut and Taco Bell restaurant chains. KFC was founded by Harland Sanders, a colorful figure who began selling fried chicken from his roadside restaurant in Corbin, Kentucky, during the Great Depression. Sanders identified the potential of the restaurant franchising concept, and the first Kentucky Fried Chicken franchise opened in Utah in 1952. KFC popularized chicken in the fast food industry, diversifying the market by challenging the established dominance of the hamburger. By branding himself as Colonel Sanders, Harland became a legendary figure of American cultural history, and his image remains prominent in KFC advertising. However, the companys rapid expansion saw it grow too large for Sanders to manage, and in 1964 he sold the company to a group of investors led by John Y. Brown, Jr. and Jack C. Massey. KFC was one of the first fast food chains to expand internationally, opening outlets in England, Mexico and Jamaica by the mid-1960s. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, KFC experienced mixed fortunes domestically, as it went through a series of changes in corporate ownership with little or no experience in the restaurant business. In the early 1970s, KFC was sold to the spirits distributor Heublein, who were taken over by the R.J. Reynolds food and tobacco conglomerate, who sold the chain to PepsiCo. The chain continued to expand overseas however, and in 1987 KFC became the first Western restaurant chain to open in China. The chain has since expanded rapidly in China, and the country is now the companys most profitable market. PepsiCo spun off its restaurants division as Tricon Global Restaurants, which later changed its name to Yum! Brands. KFC primarily sells fried chicken pieces and variations such as chicken fillet burgers (chicken sandwiches [US]) and wraps, salads and side dishes such as French fries and coleslaw, desserts and soft drinks, often supplied by  PepsiCo. Its most famous product is pressure fried chicken pieces, seasoned with Sanders Original Recipe of 11 herbs and spices. The exact nature of these ingredients is unknown, and represents a notable trade secret. Larger portions of fried chicken are served in a distinctive cardboard bucket, which has become a signature product of the chain since being introduced by franchisee Pete Harman in 1957. KFC is known for the slogan finger lickin good, which has since been replaced by Nobody does chicken like KFC and So good. Marketing Marketing is the process of communicating the value of a product or service to customers, for the purpose of selling the product or service. It is a critical business function for attracting customers. From a societal point of view, marketing is the link between a society’s material requirements and its economic patterns of response. Marketing satisfies these needs and wants through exchange processes and building long term relationships. It is the process of communicating the value of a product or service through positioning to customers. Marketing can be looked at as an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, delivering and communicating value to customers, and managing customer relationships in ways that also benefit the organization and its shareholders. Marketing is the science of choosing target markets through market analysis and market segmentation, as well as understanding consumer buying behavior and providing superior customer value. There are five competing concepts under which organizations can choose to operate their business; the production concept, the product concept, the selling concept, the marketing concept, and the holistic marketing concept. The four components of holistic marketing are relationship marketing, internal marketing, integrated marketing, and socially responsive marketing. The set of engagements necessary for successful marketing management includes, capturing marketing insights, connecting with customers, building strong brands, shaping the market offerings, delivering and communicating value, creating long-term growth, and developing marketing strategies and plans. Marketing Strategies Marketing strategy is defined by David Aaker as a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its resources on the optimal opportunities with the goals of increasing sales and achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. Marketing strategy includes all basic and long-term activities in the field of marketing that deal with the analysis of the strategic initial situation of a company and the formulation, evaluation and selection of market-oriented strategies and therefore contribute to the goals of the company and its marketing objectives. Marketing Strategies of KFC KFC IS synonymous with chicken. It has to be because chicken is its flagship product. The latest they have on offer is the marinated hot and crispy chicken that is crrrrisp and crunchy on the outside, and soft and juicy on the inside. It gives you a regular Pepsi with this at nothing more than just Rs. 39. But make no mistake, while this is a rage across the world, and in our very own Bangalore, KFC has made sure one other thing: it doesnt want to alienate the vegetarian community that gave birth to the vegetarian menu. It means you can be veg and yet be at KFC. KFC offers a wide range of vegetarian products such as the tangy, lip-smacking paneer tikka wrap n roll, the veg de-lite burger, and the veg crispy burger. There are munchies such as the crisp golden veg fingers and crunchy golden fries served with tangy sauces. If you are veg and looking for a meal, you can combine the veg fingers with steaming, peppery rice and a spice curry. The mayonnaise and sauces dont have egg in them. Sharanita Keswani, Director, KFC Marketing, says the vegetarian menu in India came about when KFC found the country had about 35 per cent vegetarians, and in metros such as Delhi and Mumbai, almost 50 per cent. The non-vegetarian is the obvious target customer because, as Ms. Sharanita points out, Bangalore and the rest of south India have over 70 per cent non-vegetarians. But she also observes that chicken is KFCs strength. KFCs vegetarian menu is almost exclusive to India and is the most extensive. Most countries either do not have a vegetarian menu, and some which do, have a burger at the most. Contrary to affecting chicken sales, the presence of a vegetarian menu has made the brand more relevant to a wider cross-section of the consumer society. This is essential as we grow the brand across the country, says Ms. Sharanita. The KFC menu strategy is to balance standardisation and localisation. The localisation works in two ways: to modify a standard chicken product with a different topping or sauce; and to have a vegetarian menu, where necessary, along with the flagship product, chicken. The localisation exercise is undertaken in every country. The U.S. and European markets have a traditional KFC menu based on chicken burgers and wraps, while Asian markets like India have been more experimental and adventurous. Here, they have rice meals, wraps, and sides. The change is imperative as Asian tastes can be very different from Western ones, Ms. Sharanita observes, adding that KFC learnt very early the high demand for vegetarian products in India. KFC has taken care to maintain safeguards on the production of its non-vegetarian products in response to observations by People For Ethical Treatment of Animals that chicken were not being treated humanely by suppliers. The debate has been on for years now and animal rights activists have prompted companies to adopt stringent measures. Pankaj Batra, Director, Marketing, Indian Sub-Continent, Yum! Restaurants International, observes: KFC is committed to the well being and humane treatment of chickens. We require all our suppliers to follow welfare guidelines developed by Yum! Restaurants International, U.S.A., with leading experts on their Animal Welfare Advisory Council. In India, we source chicken from Venkateshwara Hatcheries Limited (Venkys), which is one of the leading and respected organised players in the poultry farming business. They also supply chicken to several reputed hotel and restaurant chains in the country. We respect the Indian law and our guidelines completely adhere to them. Ms. Sharanita points out that while KFCs brand standard products are their strength throughout the world, KFC works around the core and gives consumers products with a familiar taste, especially important in a country like India that is home to such distinct and different food habits. All KFC outlets offer its customers with various forms of incentives to buy its Chicken. Using coupons that one can acquire after spending a particular amount over a period of fixed time, customers can enjoy the benefits of free meals or free add-ons. Additionally they provide meal vouchers and exciting offers in their print ads, which the customer must cut and bring along. KFC in India The first Indian KFC opened in Bangalore in June 1995.[198] Protests ensued from left wing, anti-globalisation and environmental campaigners, as well as local farmers, who objected to the chain bypassing local producers.[199] Many Indians were concerned about the onslaught of consumerism, the loss of national self-sufficiency, and the disruption of indigenous traditions.[200] The protests came to a head in August 1995, when the Bangalore outlet was repeatedly ransacked.[198] KFC Bangalore demanded, and received, a police van permanently parked outside for a year.[199] Rural activist M. D. Nanjundaswamy subsequently claimed KFC would adversely affect the health of the impoverished, by diverting grain from poor people to make the more profitable animal feed.[201] Former environment minister Maneka Gandhi joined the anti-KFC movement.[201] KFC was also accused of using illegally high amounts of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and frying its food in pork fat.[202] A second store opened in Delhi, but was closed by the authorities soon afterwards, purportedly for health reasons, but more likely to avoid a repetition of the Bangalore incident. The two stores only managed to attract a limited, affluent clientele, and KFC decided to abandon the Indian market. KFC returned to India in 1999, with a new Bangalore outlet. This was the sole KFC in India until 2004, when the chain began to expand, albeit with a makeover and a range of new vegetarian dishes. As of December 2012, there were 280 KFCs in the Indian market. As well as the standard KFC offerings, the chain sells a chickpea burger and hot wings with chilli lemon sprinkles.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Immigration :: essays research papers

Like many other areas over the past years, the US has seen a rapid increase in immigrants who have come to the region seeking better lives for their families. These immigrants, like those throughout U.S. history, are generally hard workers and make important contributions to the economy through their productive labor and purchasing power. Most immigrants usually fill essential service jobs in the economy, which are vacant. Unfortunately, like new immigrants throughout U.S. history, â€Å"they experience conditions that are commonly deprived, oppressive, and exploitive† (Conover, 2000). They are paid low wages with little potential for advancement, are subjected to hazardous working conditions, and are threatened with losing their jobs and even deportation if they voice dissatisfaction with the way they are treated. Many work several jobs to make ends meet. Many also live in substandard housing with abusive landlords, have few health cares options, and are victims of fraud and other crimes. Immigrant problems are related to trade agreements designed to enable large corporations to capture both consumer markets and cheap labor. These agreements protect rich investors, but not the workers or the environment. In the U.S., millions of production and assembly jobs are lost when corporations move operations overseas. Poor countries have had to sell state industries and open national borders to multinational corporations in order to meet a new economic order and payment of international debts. This process has restricted markets for home industries, driven out local producers, and forced people to immigrate. The U.S. borders can never be sealed, because millions of people are seeking ways to support their families, so will come to where jobs are available. Furthermore, American businesses want and need these workers. While the multinational corporations and their rich investors benefit from corporate welfare deals and seek out havens to avoid supporting society with their taxes, ordinary Americans have to pick up their tab. This situation sounds familiar in American labor history, where immigrants have been a mainstay in the national workforce. It wasn't until the labor movement gained strength that workers in the U.S. were able to turn â€Å"exploitive jobs into occupations that enabled them to support their families and improve their living conditions† (Dougherty, 2004). Higher wages have also increased their purchasing power, stimulated economic growth, and higher standards of living. Labor contracts and new laws, regulations, and policies established a more open employment system, procedures for addressing complaints, and safer working environments. Immigration :: essays research papers Like many other areas over the past years, the US has seen a rapid increase in immigrants who have come to the region seeking better lives for their families. These immigrants, like those throughout U.S. history, are generally hard workers and make important contributions to the economy through their productive labor and purchasing power. Most immigrants usually fill essential service jobs in the economy, which are vacant. Unfortunately, like new immigrants throughout U.S. history, â€Å"they experience conditions that are commonly deprived, oppressive, and exploitive† (Conover, 2000). They are paid low wages with little potential for advancement, are subjected to hazardous working conditions, and are threatened with losing their jobs and even deportation if they voice dissatisfaction with the way they are treated. Many work several jobs to make ends meet. Many also live in substandard housing with abusive landlords, have few health cares options, and are victims of fraud and other crimes. Immigrant problems are related to trade agreements designed to enable large corporations to capture both consumer markets and cheap labor. These agreements protect rich investors, but not the workers or the environment. In the U.S., millions of production and assembly jobs are lost when corporations move operations overseas. Poor countries have had to sell state industries and open national borders to multinational corporations in order to meet a new economic order and payment of international debts. This process has restricted markets for home industries, driven out local producers, and forced people to immigrate. The U.S. borders can never be sealed, because millions of people are seeking ways to support their families, so will come to where jobs are available. Furthermore, American businesses want and need these workers. While the multinational corporations and their rich investors benefit from corporate welfare deals and seek out havens to avoid supporting society with their taxes, ordinary Americans have to pick up their tab. This situation sounds familiar in American labor history, where immigrants have been a mainstay in the national workforce. It wasn't until the labor movement gained strength that workers in the U.S. were able to turn â€Å"exploitive jobs into occupations that enabled them to support their families and improve their living conditions† (Dougherty, 2004). Higher wages have also increased their purchasing power, stimulated economic growth, and higher standards of living. Labor contracts and new laws, regulations, and policies established a more open employment system, procedures for addressing complaints, and safer working environments.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Vigilance Awareness

As you are well aware, there is an increasing concern about corruption eroding the basic values of life. It has not only a negative effect in social dynamics but also erodes the value system established in the country. It is important that the younger generation who has to play a pivotal role in the development of the country needs to be educated on the urgency to fight against such unethical practices. In general, Vigilance awareness means awareness about the rights and duties of the individual in curbing corruption – both social and economic. It is a precaution to break corruption being aware of the corruption.Now-a-days, vigilance awareness week is celebrated for developing the social awareness amongst the people. When we are cheating in exams we think that we are very brilliant guy. But we don’t realize that we are leading a step towards an evil – corruption at our individual level. We are not aware of the affects of our works which lead to devastate the soci al and economic conditions of our country. Now the question arises, why we have to be aware from this corruption? Why corruption is compelling us to be more aware and aware. Because corruption is found to be one of the most damaging consequences of poor governance system.It is characterized by lack of both transparency and accountability. Corruption lowers investment, hinders economic growth and human development. It is one of the factors responsible for poverty. That’s why we have to be vigilantly aware. If we found a cheating anywhere, we should immediately lodge a complaint. But many of us think that what is the need of lodging a complaint. If we oversight the corruption, it will be repeated again & again and lead to big scam. Hence, vigilance awareness is required to identify and check the fraud and disorderness. Vigilance Awareness As you are well aware, there is an increasing concern about corruption eroding the basic values of life. It has not only a negative effect in social dynamics but also erodes the value system established in the country. It is important that the younger generation who has to play a pivotal role in the development of the country needs to be educated on the urgency to fight against such unethical practices.In general, Vigilance awareness means awareness about the rights and duties of the individual in curbing corruption – both social and economic. It is a precaution to break corruption being aware of the corruption. Now-a-days, vigilance awareness week is celebrated for developing the social awareness amongst the people. When we are cheating in exams we think that we are very brilliant guy. But we don’t realize that we are leading a step towards an evil – corruption at our individual level. We are not aware of the affects of our works which lead to devastate the soci al and economic conditions of our country.Now the question arises, why we have to be aware from this corruption? Why corruption is compelling us to be more aware and aware. Because corruption is found to be one of the most damaging consequences of poor governance system. It is characterized by lack of both transparency and accountability. Corruption lowers investment, hinders economic growth and human development. It is one of the factors responsible for poverty. That’s why we have to be vigilantly aware. If we found a cheating anywhere, we should immediately lodge a complaint. But many of us think that what is the need of lodging a complaint. If we oversight the corruption, it will be repeated again & again and lead to big scam. Hence, vigilance awareness is required to identify and check the fraud and disorderness.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Acheulean Handaxe The Oldest Known Formal Human Tool

Acheulean handaxes are large, chipped stone objects which represent the oldest, most common, and longest-used formally-shaped working tool ever made by human beings. Acheulean handaxes are sometimes spelled Acheulian: researchers commonly referred to them as Acheulean bifaces, because the tools were not used as axes, at least not most of the time. Handaxes were first made by our ancient ancestors, members of the hominin family about 1.76 million years ago, as part of the Acheulean tradition toolkit of the Lower Paleolithic (a.k.a. Early Stone Age), and they were used well into the beginning of the Middle Paleolithic (Middle Stone Age) period, about 300,000–200,000. What Makes a Stone Tool a Handaxe? Handaxes are large stone cobbles which have been roughly worked on both sides—what is known as bifacially worked--into a wide variety of shapes. Shapes seen in handaxes are lanceolate (narrow and thin like a laurel leaf), ovate (flatly oval), orbiculate (close to circular), or something in between. Some are pointed, or at least relatively pointy on one end, and some of those pointed ends are quite tapered. Some handaxes are triangular in cross-section, some are flat: in fact, there is considerable variability within the category. Early handaxes, those made before about 450,000 years ago, are simpler and coarser than the later ones, which evidence finer flaking. There are several disagreements in the archaeological literature about handaxes, but the primary one is about their function—what were these tools used for? Most scholars argue the handaxe was a cutting tool, but others suggest it was thrown as a weapon, and still others suggest it might also have played a role in social and/or sexual signaling (my handaxe is larger than his). Most scholars think handaxes were deliberately shaped, but a minority argue that if one resharpens the same rough tool over and over eventually it forms a handaxe. Experimental archaeologists Alastair Key and colleagues compared the angles of the edges on 600 ancient handaxes to 500 others they experimentally reproduced and used. Their evidence suggests that at least some of the edges show wear indicating the long edges of the handaxes were used to cut wood or other material. Acheulean Handaxe Distribution The Acheulean handaxe is named after the Saint Acheul archaeological site in the lower Sommes valley of France where the tools were first discovered n the 1840s. The earliest Acheulean handaxe yet found is from the Kokiselei 4 site in the Rift valley of Kenya, dated about 1.76 million years ago. The earliest handaxe technology outside of Africa was identified at two cave sites in Spain, Solana del Zamborino, and Estrecho del Quipar, dated about 900,000 years ago. Other early examples are from the Konso-Gardula site in Ethiopia, Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, and Sterkfontein in South Africa. Early handaxes have been associated with our hominid ancestor Homo erectus in Africa and Europe. The later ones seem to be associated with both H. erectus and H. heidelbergensis. Several hundred thousand handaxes have been recorded from the Old World, including Africa, Europe, and Asia. Differences Between Lower and Middle Stone Age Axes However, although the handaxe as a tool was in use for over an astounding one and a half million years, the tool did change over that period. There is evidence that, over time, making handaxes became a refined procedure. Early handaxes seem to have been sharpened by reduction of the tip alone, while later ones appear to have been resharpened along their entire length. Whether this is a reflection of the kind of tool that the handaxe had become, or of the increased stone-working capabilities of the makers, or a little of both, is currently unknown. Acheulean handaxes and their associated tool forms are not the first tools ever used. The oldest tool set is known as Oldowan tradition, and they include a large suite of chopping tools which are cruder and simpler tools, thought to have been used by Homo habilis. The earliest evidence of stone tool knapping technology is from the Lomekwi 3 site in West Turkana, Kenya, dated about 3.3 million years ago. In addition, our hominin ancestors may well have created tools from bone and ivory, which have not survived in as nearly as much abundance as stone tools have. Zutovski and Barkai have identified elephant bone versions of handaxes in assemblages from several sites including Konso, dated between 300,000 and 1.4 million years ago. Did Dad Teach Us How to Make Acheulean Handaxes? Archaeologists have always assumed that the ability to make Acheulean handaxes was culturally transmitted—that means taught from generation to generation and tribe to tribe. Some scholars (Corbey and colleagues, Lycett and colleagues) suggest that handaxe forms were not, in fact, solely culturally transmitted, but rather were at least partly genetic artifacts. That is to say, that H. erectus and H. heidelbergensis were at least partly hard-wired to produce the handaxe shape and that the changes seen in the late Acheulean period are the result of a shift from genetic transmission to increasing reliance on cultural learning. That may seem far-fetched at first: but many animals such as birds create species-specific nests or other artifacts that look cultural from the outside but instead are genetic-driven. Sources Corbey, Raymond, et al. The Acheulean Handaxe: More Like a Birds Song Than a Beatles Tune? Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 25.1 (2016): 6-19. Print.Hodgson, Derek. The Symmetry of Acheulean Handaxes and Cognitive Evolution. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 2 (2015): 204-08. Print.Iovita, Radu, and Shannon P. McPherron. The Handaxe Reloaded: A Morphometric Reassessment of Acheulian and Middle Paleolithic Handaxes. Journal of Human Evolution 61.1 (2011): 61-74. Print.Iovita, Radu, et al. High Handaxe Symmetry at the Beginning of the European Acheulian: The Data from La Noira (France) in Context. PLOS ONE 12.5 (2017): e0177063. Print.Key, Alastair J. M., et al. Looking at Handaxes from Another Angle: Assessing the Ergonomic and Functional Importance of Edge Form in Acheulean Bifaces. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 44, Part A (2016): 43-55. Print.Lepre, Christopher J. , et al. An Earlier Origin for the Acheulian. Nature 477 (2011): 82-85. Print.Lyce tt, Stephen J., et al. Factors Affecting Acheulean Handaxe Variation: Experimental Insights, Microevolutionary Processes, and Macroevolutionary Outcomes. Quaternary International 411, Part B (2016): 386-401. Print.Moore, Mark W., and Yinika Perston. Experimental Insights into the Cognitive Significance of Early Stone Tools. PLoS ONE 11.7 (2016): e0158803. Print.Santonja, Manuel, et al. Ambrona Revisited: The Acheulean Lithic Industry in the Lower Stratigraphic Complex. Quaternary International in press (2017). Print.Shipton, C., and C. Clarkson. Flake Scar Density and Handaxe Reduction Intensity. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 2 (2015): 169-75. Print.White, Mark J., et al. Well-Dated Fluvial Sequences as Templates for Patterns of Handaxe Distribution: Understanding the Record of Acheulean Activity in the Thames and Its Correlatives. Quaternary International (2017). Print.Zutovski, Katia, and Ran Barkai. The Use of Elephant Bones for Making Acheulian Handaxes: A Fresh Loo k at Old Bones. Quaternary International 406, Part B (2016): 227-38. Print.