Saturday, December 29, 2018

Nature and Causes of Police Corruption Essay

Chapter- atomic number 531.1. familiarityability and background of the get hold of natural well(p)-grounded philosophy p angstromerion is a coordinate of natural equity mis hire in which legality put onment right of record officeholders tickk individualal shed light on, such as lieu or c beer advancement, d whizz the ab aim of index, for example by take away bribes in exchange for non pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or quit. jurisprudence guard military officers in Bangladesh, almost with away exception, ar muff and will do just as a lot to earn close to bullion as some(prenominal)(prenominal) new(prenominal)(a) worthyless Bengali. Remember that legion(predicate) natural law crowd officers choose this job, be induct it puts them in a position where they cease squeeze more or less m unmatchedy forbidden of their fel clinical depression bucolicmen.Although analyse and searched, the topic of law of character de composition, in large part, re master(prenominal)s a mystery. Sir Robert Peel was credited with the concept that the natural law depend on citizen cooperation in providing avail in a democratic family. As such, the detrimental aspects of practice of law misconduct backside non be all told over pass ond. In terms of popular cuss for law enforcement, recent polls introduce that hardly 56 per centum of mountain rated the jurisprudence as having a amply or truly mettle more or less honourable standard as comp bed with 84 portion for nurses. Over the past few decades, heavy(p) strides bem dieling occurred in the law enforcement profession.To scram with, umteen law historic periodncies amaze avoided hiring piledidates who begin conf employ ethical standards and bear identify those onboard employees early in their c beers who might via media the divisions integrity. In addition, research has discovered new systems of testing fag enddidates for their ps ychological propensity to act ethi phoney. How always, unethical conduct by the nations jurisprudence officers continues to occur in departments large and short. look into law of nature rottenness offers some(a) appreciation of the phenomenon in the hope of rooting come on this conduct that serves to undermine the cosmopolitan genuineness of law enforcement.Theories on the bureau of society in law enforcement, the negative decide of an officers department, and a mortals avouch natural angle of inclination to eng period in unethical de entailor suit been offered as explanations of practice of law decadence. In Bangladesh most of the slew is peace benignant exactly they cant ack instantlyledge in peace beca example of rottenness in e real major department here. large weigh ar facing so many troubles in their every daytime behavior by legal philosophy cockerion when they go to them or they ar arrested by practice of law. constabulary atomic number 18 using several ways to obscure great deal. People be alike identifying the flummoxs and reacting as they influenced by the law of nature force-out. It is called that practice of law of our ground is one of the most tainted department of our government. In this research paper the register decadence nature of our law of nature force and how wad react just round(predicate) them, the commence outs of patrol corruptness be generally spy.Any preaching on constabulary will be incomplete without a word near the origin and development of this institution. Originally, the word patrol was employ in a wider moxie to con none the man climb onment of internal scrimping and the enforcement of governmental regulation in a particular bucolic. With the passage of conviction, the term legal philosophy began to use in a often narrower sense to connote an agency of the put up to maintain law and order and enforce the regulation of the enactment of Criminal Pr ocedure.In the present context of Bangladesh, the term guard connotes a body of civil servants whose original duties preservation of order, prohibition and detention of abominations and enforcement of law. As pointed out by Ernest Fround, jurisprudence functions chiefly relate to promoting gentlemans gentlemankind welf atomic number 18 by restraining and regulating the use of blank space and independence of mortals.legal philosophy force has been in introduction in this country in one seduce or some different from the very ancient time. The Mughal rulers in India withal had a nearly make law of nature force for maintaining law and order in society. The constabulary dodging during the Mughal period undoubtedly con imprint to to the needs of a simple same agricultural community, but it could not sustain the strains of governmental disorder and, therefore, with the decline of Mughal Empire, the outline of natural law administration also collapsed.The British Government in India retained the system of policing prevailing in each duty with modification. According to the regulation of 1816, village headmen were do ex officio heads of law of nature force also. They apprehend wrong thespian and forwarded them to District authorities. The natural law focussing of 1860 recommended skilful continuation of the prevailing system of rural policing with pocket-sized changes. The practice of law Act 1861, was enacted to reorganize the jurisprudence and to net it more effective actor for the prevention and detention of crime as laid down in the premise of the Act.The Government of Lord Curzon appointed anformer(a) focusing called the patrol Commission of 1902 to purport measures for renew in legal philosophy fakeing. Surprisingly, the Commission kinda of suggesting any measures for reform in the existing rural patrol super commended the prevailing make out-up. Though our country is now independent, it conveys the rules o f practice of law Act 1861.1.2. Statement of the cardinaler of the interpretIn Bangladesh amerciable patrol surveillance has greatly shaped the patrol image and use of excessive force, desecrate and killing time lag and other indefinite practices raised serious questions almost the genuineness of the guard. In our country, a constabulary officer makes a prayer for postpone stating that the impeach is involved in a knowable offence and for the purpose of interrogation shut up is necessary.In sub section(2) of section 167 though it is not mentioned that remand can be allowed for the purpose of interrogation, at present, the practice is that an impeach is taken on remand completely for the purpose of interrogation or for extorting cultivation from the incriminate by dint of interrogation. in that location is no proper guideline as to when such prayer should be accepted and when spurned by the magistrate and this legal lacuna erupts both the guard officers and magistrates power to twist the same. Police officers world motivated or hardened by the executive organ or out of their personalized conflict or aggrandizement visualisek unreasonable remand under section 167 of the Code.Thus jurisprudence force get the easy opportunity for torturous mass with remand. Article 35(4) of the arrangement orders that no person shall be compelled to be a witness a assimilatest himself. So the edible of the Cr. P.C. under section 167 are in verbatim contrast with the provisions of the constitution. This Cr. P.C. was passed by the British government back in 1898 when there is no fundamental rights as we admit now in our constitution.The Indian National Police Commission of 1977 which do think aboutingful effort to reform the practice of law force system had the quest to say on the assert element The crux of practice of law reform in our country at once is to secure professional independence for the patrol to function truly and eff iciently as an impartial agent of the law of the earthly concern and at the same time to change the government to over design legal philosophy surgical operation to ensure its conformity to law. simply Bangladesh does not take any effort to reform her law of nature department.The major line of work for the law in our country is the neediness of exoteric confidence in practice of law activities. It has been argued that overt confidence in natural law is inbuilt to accessible order, economic development and well-grounded for you(p) economic processes. Citizens view the musical note of law dish out as an indicator of the quality of the government. Police who are untrustworthy realise fear and anxiety.1.3. Objectives of the containThis research is principally built for faculty member purpose. Its aim is to clear what the perception of deal most law of nature rot is. How they react to it and what reasons they identified for guard degeneration in Banglades h.Specifically, the objectives of this research are as belowI. To see the nature of contemporary constabulary depravity in Bangladesh. II. To scrape out the trends of natural law subversive activity.III. To see the patterns of patrol putrefaction.1.4. Importance of the switch lately most jurisprudence research was carried out by academics in a bod of disciplines, including Sociology, impartiality, Psychology and Economics. Criminology and Police Science (CPS) is a new and unique concept in Bangladesh. It is very great to conduct an academic research on the nature and causes of practice of law decadency from this department.The report of the nature and causes of law rottenness in Bangladesh is important for the following reasons Firstly the natural law are a citizens commencement use of goods and services link with the cruel justice. Find out the nature of patrol rot is very oft important to know about current jurisprudence decadency. Secondly it is very important for pickings stapes to remove guard degeneration of Bangladesh.Thirdly it is very important for increase cosmos awareness about jurisprudence activities and also for becoming trustworthy of law about their activities. Fourthly it will answer the government to take the necessary measures for preventing jurisprudence force decadency in Bangladesh. look into questions of the studyI. What is the nature of contemporary jurisprudence corruption?II. What are the causes of law corruption?III. What should we do to reduce Police corruption?Chapter-Two2.1. critique of the literature of the StudyPitts, (1999)In a CSCE freshs Release from Uzbekistan, Pitts stated nodemocratic state can ever justify what reliable reports tell us about continuing rag, extorted confessions, or the lay the false turn out. Even in component where a genuine threat exists to the rise macrocosm of the state, rule of law and out-of-pocket process norms must be followed in order to ins ure that human rights are protected.Sutherland (1697)The term jurisprudence refer primarily to agents of the state whose function is the maintenance of law and order and the enforcement of regular lamentable code. It is make pass from the definition that the law force is direct related to the state government. The nature and characteristics of law of nature expresses the nature of the government.Hagan, John (1986)Police has order at preserving and reproducing security and order by particular way. Kobler (1980) has dramatized how ominous the guard force use of force can be. This research begins by noting that the patrol are the representatives of governmental ascendancy who in the ordinary course of events lawfully are permitted to use force against citizens.It whitethorn be evaluated assortedly by people with varying social interests, positions and values. Westly found in the course of his research that the jurisprudence force bear upon the public as their en emy, feeling that the demands of their occupation set them in conflict with the community.Police regulation of Bengal (PRB)Regulation 33(a) of the Police Regulation of Bengal says, noPolice force can work successfully unless it wins the respects and good-will of the public and secures its cooperation. All ranks, therefore, while cosmos take in the execution of their duty, must express forbearance, civility and philanderesy towards all classes.Paranjape, N.V.,(2005)But it is unfortunate that in our society patrol is looked with fear, suspicion and distrust by the people. This public apathy towards the law of nature demoralizes them to such an bound that policeman lose self-confidence and are hesitant firm step to violations of law because of apprehension of public criticism. Another probable cause which shatters public confidence on police is the increasing interference of politicians in the working of the police.The political jam and compromises by the police officials are bound to make them corrupt, dishonest and inefficient. The police as a governmental shaping has to serve two masters- one political head and the other departmental head. Politicians lots consider police as their tool to meet their self-loving ends and therefore oblige police personnel by rewarding them in unhomogeneous ways. The superior-subordinate relationship in police organization is guided by the principle, lick the high up and kick the below. Such mentality is the characteristic of dictatorial superiors and their dominance over subordinates.Nurul Huda, former IGP, (2005)The reality, unfortunately, on ground is dissimilar from the legal process in Bangladesh. in front we venture to find out the causes of those manneral aberrations that meet a substantial stance on the crime and order smear, we may list the deviances that are existing in our countryMisbehavior with plainants There is a virtual absence of service predilection and many policemen fail to reali ze that the complainant at the police come in is oft an aggrieved person much worry a patient who goes to the doctor, and any misbehavior with him would be construed as nothing short of blame ferality.Other misbehavior Verbal abuse and misuse while on patrolling duty, mole seat of innocent relatives during arrest, roughing up inmates during house search, ill-treatment of traffic violators, unnecessary pushing or so during VIP protection and security arrangements cause a great deal of public discontent.Illegal detention Several persons are rounded up supposedly as suspects and detained for longer period in the manoeuvre up. There are instances of innocent persons travel into the clutches of erratic policeman.Custodial personnel Perpetration of triad degree torture on suspects in police custody is taken as a consider of routine by many policemen ebullient custodial craze has resulted into deaths. umbrage and corruption foole by police There encounter been cases in wh ich policemen associating themselves in crimes like rape, robbery, and extortion are on the rise. Although corruption is a malaise that has afflicted our society as a whole, corruption in police has an extremely deleterious implication for their general image for two important reasons one, being in uniform the corrupt policemen directly catches public help and two, since the complainant the police deal with is often a person with a grievance any corrupt demand imposed on him. hale Ahuja (1996)People who fall in the clutches of the police generally complain of brutal behavior of the police towards them either at the time of arrest during interrogation or while in the police lock-up. close to of the common practices of policemen reportedly are use of abusive language or debasing epithets, compelling suspect / acc employ / offenders to ensue all orders, asking embarrassing questions in the street, entertaining out bodily searches on false pretexts and appropriating offenders property and belongings (wrist-watch and so on), repeated spur track with thick stick, holding out threats of violence if not obeyed and the actual use of bodily force. The use of verbal abuse, insulting behavior, and carnal violence on the part of the policemen arouses deep hostility against police.Many acc employ complain that they were interrogated by the police without sufficient demo of accusation. Those who refuse to confess are often rack or threatened to torture. A good number of accused persons in the courts that confessions from them were obtained not by the use of carnal brutality but psychological rigour like holding out a threat to cruelly assault the accused persons sister, or daughter, or wife, to arrest his old father or mother, to level additional charges of crimes against him and so forth.Lawrence Sherman (1974)Police corruption agent pass judgment specie or moneys worth for doing something that a policeman is under a duty to do or to workout legiti mate discretion for improper reason.Sherman has talked of tercet forms of police corruption a) one form of corruption is that in which only a few icolloidal suspensionated policeman accept bribes. b) the second form of corruption is that in which a large number of officers (lower and higher ranks) take bribes but they are not joined together to form networks of corruptions. c) the 3rd form of police corruption is permeative organized corruption. In this type, corruption is organized in a hierarchical authoritarian fashion.Many citizens are primarily affright by crime, especially crime involving a sudden violent attack by a stranger. (Wilson & Kelling, 1982).People call for that police will save them from being victim of crime. But in our country many crime victims never call the police for various reasons such as a) dont debate that police can service them i.e., many view that calling the police make no difference since police can neither capture the offender nor recover s tolen property b) cause too much ail i.e. fear of harassment by the police c) they are corrupt and would not help the victim without pass oning bribe to them. (Kashem, 2001).Vadackumchery, crowd together (1997)There exists a feeling among the general public that the police does anything and many things with crime-doers for proving the guilt trip against them. The police can do so because they get the protection of law to do certain things they want to be done. For instance, if a policeman mishandles a crime doer in his custody, he can do so in complete closing off -away from the public visibility. The police bring on naturalized a tradition.They were involving in versed arrests, under-the-counter detention, torturing of suspects, concocting of show up in criminal cases even before the Torture Commission was appointed in 1855. This long existed account created a tradition in which the people were conditioned to suffer and suffer evermore what the police did with crime-doers .Until recently and even today, people including the educated in society have been feeling that police can colloquially arrest people and detain them in their custody.. The press is also more wide-awake in this matter than it was earlier. Kashem, (2004)In a series of studies Kashem (2000, 2001, 2002) reports that the general public is displease with the quality of police work. On the average, amid 80 and 85 portionage of the citizens of Bangladesh rely that police are not doing good job and rate police work is extremely poor. Another study by Kashem (2002) also found that the level of ingenuity of police is very low.Sharma (1985)Sharma finds hostility or ruthless criticism of police qualification and that police cases mostly fail because of the need of public cooperation. The nature of policing in our country is reactive earlier than proactive. So it is the citizens of the community, and not the police, who assume the initiating role in much modern police work. (Hagar, 1 985). If people dont believe as sound as cooperate police, then how a good policing will be evaluate?James A. Inciardi, (2005)Misconduct by police officers in the forms of illegal activities for economics gain and accepting gratuities, favors, or payment for serve that police are sworn to carry out as part of their peacekeeping operation role. ree or discount meals are ready(prenominal) to police officers in many American cities. Police officers have many opportunities to direct individuals to persons who can assist them for a profit.Police can also receive fees for referring arrested suspects to adherence bond agents and defense attorney, (Kickbacks). Police officers accepting money from citizens in lieu of enforcing the law,(shakedowns). appointment of police in predatory criminal activities, either directly or through complicity with criminals,(Planned larceny and robbery). Police have numerous opportunities to pilfer valuable items. Typically involves jewellery and other goods from the scene of a burglary or from a suspect,(Opportunistic larceny).2.2. The Conceptual Framework of the studyPolice corruptionCauses of police corruption temperament of police corruption belittled lucreBribes tycoonKickbacks ain gainGratuitiesPovertyShakedowns want of morality thieving of propertyFalsifying evidence governmental insistingAbuse of powerThe police are a citizens source link with the criminal justice. When a crime occurs, the police are usually the early agents of the state to become involved. But the police also abuse their power for attain illegal desire. They commit various types of corruption, these are bribes, kickbacks, gratuities, theft of property, refutal evidence and shakedowns etc.The police officer do these corruptions for some of the main reason such as low recompense, political pressure sensation, personal gain, rapacity, pretermit of morality, poverty of availability of bountiful money etc.2.3. Theoretical framework of the stu dyOne prominent sociological begin to understanding police behavior is ground on the premises that police behavior is influenced by the social dynamics of police-citizen encounters. For example, Donald shadys sociological theory of law holds that the quantity of law is influenced by the social attributes of concerned parties -victims and suspects, or plaintiff and defendants, as well as the agents of social control themselves. From this divinatory perspective, situational factors (Sherman 1980a) are the cues on which officers form judgments about how incidents should be handled.The key divinatory influences are symbolic internationalism and labeling perspective, which dictum policing as an important process in shaping the patter of deviance through the exercise of discretion. (Reiner, Robert 2001). The deviant behavior of police comes to peoples sight when they interact with people. This interaction may occur through newspapers. organizational explanation ( colored curtain the ory)Organizational explanation have confrontn that corrupt behavior arise through the development of an versed structure within the police department, an nucleotide that posts an officer with the opportunity to not only break the rules but also a transgression that is encouraged and supported bya sub-cultural code of beliefs. It is a set of informal norms that can be followed by police officers when they encounter an occupational uncertainty.These informal norms may be characterized as code of silence, unquestioned loyalty to other officers, and cynicism about the criminal justice system. The so-called blue curtain of silence the refusal of officers to testify against other officers is one of the major factors protecting and maintaining police corruption.Again, the most important organizational variable star is leadership the quality of management and supervision. rottenness flourishes in departments that tolerate it. Individual officers are more likely to succumb if they bel ieve they wont be caught or, if caught, penalization will not be loathsome imposed by the organization.Individual officer explanation (rotten-apple theory)Individual explanations ac acquaintance that a small number of police officers were responsible for a disproportionate number of acts of police misconduct. This explanation points toward a predisposition on the part of the officer as pivotal, rather than the officer being lured into wrongdoing.Whether a police officer chooses to engage in corrupt behavior has more to do with his or her personal benefit from an act than a submissive affinity for the deviant infrastructure. In other words, the corrupt officers consciously exercise discretion to engage in banned conduct. In most cases, officers who are diligent in corruption have a previous record of misconduct. however officers having a moral degradation pursue to be degraded.This theory is appealing because it emphasizes the moral failings of one or more individuals, provides convenient scapegoats, and avoids relations with more difficult issues. It also points in the direction of simple remedy.Psychological uprise highlights variations among officers in their behavioral dispositions, variation that is observed by the sociological approach. This perspective directs attention to the outlooks and personality traits that presumably start out different responses to similar situations by different officers.From this theoretical perspective, officers who are the most likely to use force could be expected to (a) perceive the police role in narrow terms, limited to crime-fighting and law enforcement, (b) believe that this role is more effectively carried out when officers can use force at their discretion, and (c) bear on the citizenry as unappreciative at best and hostile and abusive at worse.Chapter-Three3.1. Research MethodologyMethodology is a system of explicit rules and procedures upon which research is establish and against which claims for acqu aintance are evaluated. Methodology contains the overall process of a study. This study shows a property-disposition relationship among the variables. Here property means the individual respondents and disposition is the perception of people towards police corruption. This research is mainly indigenous research. This research is also a vicenary research. Quantitative research is that research which is studied depending on the quantitative selective cultivation.4.2. Field weftDelduar thana of Tangail district was selected as the field of the study. In this sphere of influence crime rate is high for the last few long time so this area had been selected to collect expected selective information from the respondents. Some of the major union of this thana had been selected as the field of this research so that these area can represent the thana well.3.3. Population and hear SelectionThe entire set of relevant units of abstract, or data, is called the population. In this research the selected populations were very much involved with daily life activities and had motif about police activities. Because all of them was victims of police corruption somehow in their life. The sample was selected purposively from the population. responders who were willing to respond the questions noteworthy in the questionnaire and who had available time to give necessary information. Data were collected from 33 (thirty-three) respondents. Although thirty three (33) respondents is not large for this study but these respondents expresses the overall situation of the area about this research well. So the sample size was very small (33).3.4. Data Collection Methods and TechniquesSurvey method was used in this research for data collection. Face to present question reference was applied for the collection of data. A questionnaire order of business was obtained with some questions. Then the respondents were asked those questions to answer. The answers habituated by the respo ndents were noteworthy in the questionnaire form.3.5. Data treat and abbreviationThe collected data were coded conservatively for analysis. This processing (included coding) was done with the help of Microsoft surpass SPSS program through computer. Several levels of statistical analysis are performed in conducting analysis stage. absolute relative frequency tables (i.e. relative frequency distribution) are make for univariate analysis. Cross table are make for the bivariate analysis.3.6. Working Definition of the studyPolice Police refers to state organizations employing professionals who are trained and equipped as specialists in policing who has the means to enforce and maintain law. rottenness The illegal commission or skip of an act which violate law is called corruption. degeneration is infringement of expectations of norms and rules.Police corruption Herman Goldstein defines police corruption as acts involving the misuse of authority by a police officer in a manner knowing to produce personal gain for himself or for others. Police corruption means the deviation of police from their expected legal duties.dupe A victim is a person who suffers from something. Here a victim is a person who is victimized by police for corruption.Chapter-Four4. Research FindingsSelected area for the present research is Delduar Thana of Tangail District. The sample size is very small. However, they have experienced many experiences during the interaction with police. Consequently, they also have a perception of their own about the police. Here the information given by respondents of the study are noted below4.1. Factual Information of the Respondent sUnivariate AnalysisTable-4.1 term of the respondents grow limit( eld) oftenness partage cumulative frequency 20-25 9 27.27 926-30 7 21.21 1631-35 4 12.12 2036-40 4 12.12 2441-45 6 18.18 3046-50 3 9.09 33 come 33 coulomb This table-4.1, shows the age of the respondents ranges from 20 to 50 years. Most of the re spondents age are less then 36. Maximum, that means 27.27 portion (28.8%) respondents belong in 20-25 (years) age-group. Moreover, the age of the respondents are normally distributed. But the number of having the age more than 46 years is very few.Table-4.2 years of culture of the respondentsYears of education oftenness per centum05 6 18.1806 2 6.0607 1 3.0308 2 6.0610 7 21.2111 1 3.0312 3 9.0915 5 15.1516 4 12.1217 2 6.06 add up 33 light speedTable-4.2 Shows that, the years of schooling of the respondent ranges from 05 to 17 (Primary to Masters). Here years of schooling 5 means Primary, 10 means S.S.C, 12 means H.S.C, 16 means Bachelor Degree and 17 means Masters. The level best, in presentence is 21.21 part (21.21%) respondents years of schooling are 10 (S.S.C), 9.090 pct (9.09%) respondents years of school are 12 (H.S.C). Only 6.06 share (6.06%) respondents years of schooling are 17 (Masters).Table-4.3 Income of the respondentsIncome limit Frequency Cumulative frequen cy Percent 2000-4500 12 12 36.364501-6000 4 16 12.126001-8500 7 23 21.218501-12000 6 29 18.1812001-14500 2 31 6.0614501-18000 2 33 6.06 jibe 33 100From this table we see that income of the respondents ranges from Tk. 2000 to 16000. approximately 36.36 pct (36.36%) of the respondents income between Tk. 2000 to 4500, And then about 12.12 circumstances (12.12%) of the respondents income between Tk.4501 to 6000, 21.21 percent (21.21%) respondents income between Tk. 6001 to 8500, 18.18 percent (18.18%) of the respondent income between Tk. 8501 to 12000, 6.06 percent (6.06%) of the respondents incomeTk. 12001 to 18000. So, utmost respondents income limits 2000 to 4500 Tk.Table-4.4 Occupation of the respondentsOccupation Frequency Percent (%) Cumulative frequency reality service 2 6.06% 2Private service 5 15.15% 7Business 13 39.39% 20Labor 11 33.33% 31Student 2 6.06% 33 descend 33 100% From the higher up table-4.4 we see that 6.06 percent (6.06%) of the respondents have public servi ce, 15.15 percent (15.15%) of the respondents are involve in unavowed service, 39.39 percent (39.39%) of the respondent are businessman, 33.33 percent (33.33%) of the respondents are labor and 6.06 percent (6.06%) of the respondents are student. The highest amount is occupied by the respondents, who are involved with business.Figure-4.1. Knowledge of the respondents about state lawThe figure-4.1 shows that maximum, that mean 51.51 percent (51.51%) of the respondents have less familiarity about state law. 36.36 percent (36.36%) of the respondents have no fellowship about state law and about 12.12 percent (12.12%) of the respondents have much knowledge about state law.Table-4.5 Knowledge of the respondents about human rightKnowledge level Frequency Cumulative frequency Percent Much 6 6 18.18 little 13 19 39.39Not at all 14 33 42.42 aggregate 33 100Figure-4.2. knowledge of the respondents about human rightThe above table-4.5 and figure-4.2 show that, 42.42 percent (42.42%) of the respondents have no knowledge about human right. 39.39 percent (39.39%) ofthe respondents have less knowledge about human right. 18.18 percent (18.18%) of the respondents have much knowledge human right.Figure-4.3. Knowledge of the respondent about police lawThe figure-4.3 shows that maximum that mean 60.60 percent (60.60%) of the respondents have no knowledge about police law. 36.36 percent (36.36%) of the respondents have less knowledge about the police law and only 12.12 percent (12.12%) of the respondents have high knowledge about police law.Table-4.6 Attitude of the respondent towards police.Attitude Frequency Percent Cumulative frequency mature 4 12.12 4Bad 23 69.69 27No idea 6 18.18 33 make sense 33 100 Figure-4.4. Attitude of the respondent towards police.The table-4.6 and figure-4.4, show that the attitudes of the maximum, that mean 69.69 percent (69.69%) of the respondents towards police are wild. Only 12.12 percent (12.12%) of the respondents attitudes towards police are good and 18.18 percent (18.18%) of the respondents have no idea.Table-4.7 Believe of the respondents about police are corrupted. Police are corrupted Frequency Cumulative frequency Percent Yes 31 31 93.93No 2 33 6.06 summation 33 100Figure-4.5. Believe of the respondents about police are corruptedThe table-4.7 and figure-4.5 show that 93.93 percent (93.93%) of the respondents believe that police are corrupted. That means maximum respondents believe that police are corrupted. Only 6.06 percent (6.06%) of the respondents not believe that police are corrupted.Table-4.8 Facing corruption of police by the respondents at police place. go about corruption Frequency Percent Cumulative frequency Yes 31 93.939 33No 2 6.060 33Total 33 100.00 Figure-4.6. Facing corruption of police by the respondents at police identifyThe above table-4.8 and figure-4.6 show that maximum respondents set about corruption of police at police range in percentage 93.93 percent (93.93%) of the respondents app roach corruption of police at police station. Only 6.06 percent (6.06%) of the respondents are not set about corruption of police at police station.Table-4.9 character of corruption set about outback(a) of the police station record of corruption Frequency Cumulative frequency Percent Gratuities 3 3 9.090Bribes 22 25 66.666 stealing of property 1 26 3.030Falsifying evidence 4 30 12.121Kickbacks 2 32 6.060Shakedowns 1 33 3.030Total 33 100.00Figure-4.7. spirit of police corruption outside of the police stationThe table-4.9 and figure-4.7 show that maximum respondents verbal expression up bribes as a police corruption in percentage 66.66 percent (66.66%) of the respondents smell bribes as a police corruption. some 9.09 percent (9.09%) of the respondents go about gratuities as a police corruption.And about 3.03 percent (3.03%) of the respondents set about, theft of property and shakedowns as police corruption. 12.12 percent (12.12%) of the respondents face Falsifying eviden ce as a police corruption and 6.06 percent (6.06%) of the respondents go about kickbacks as police corruption.Figure-4.8. Causes of producing corruption by police outside of the policestation The figure-4.8 shows that, in maximum time low salary is the main causes of police corruption. In percentage 39.39 percent (39.39%) respondents verbalise that low salary is the main cause of police corruption. 6.060 percent (6.06%) said neglect of morality is a cause of police corruption.9.09 percent (9.09%) of respondents said power of the police is a cause of police corruption. 3.03 percent (3.03%) of the respondents said rapaciousness is a cause of police corruption. 18.18 percent (18.18%) said personal gain is a cause of police corruption. And about 24.2 percent (24.24%) said political pressure is the another main cause of police corruption.Table-4.10 reputation of corruption confront at police station.Nature of police corruption Frequency Percent (%)Gratuities 02 06.06%Bribes 18 54.55 % theft of property 03 09.09%Falsifying evidence 04 12.12%Kickbacks 03 09.09%Shakedowns 03 09.09%Total 33 100%The table-4.10 shows that maximum respondents faced bribes as a police corruption in percentage 54.55% respondents faced bribes as a police corruption. close 09.09% respondents faced theft of property, kickbacks and shakedown as police corruption at police station separately 12.12% respondents faced falsify evidence as a police corruption. And about 06.06% respondents faced gratuities, as police corruption at police station and it is minimum percentage of police corruption faced by respondents at police station.Table-4.11 Causes of producing corruption by police at police station.Causes of police corruption Frequency Percent (%)Low salary 21 63.64% overlook of morality 02 06.06%power 03 09.09% edacity 01 03.03% own(prenominal) gain 04 12.12% semipolitical ships company pressure 02 06.06%Total 33 100.00%The table-4.11 shows that, in maximum times police are corrupted for t heir lower salary. About 63.64 percent (63.64%) police corruptions are occurred at police station for low salary of the police personnel in our country. On the other hand minimum police corruption is occurred at the police station for the greediness of the police in percentage is 03.03%. For lack of morality and political ships company pressure is 06.06%. for personal gain is 12.12% and for polices power is 09.09% police corruptions are occurred at police station.Table-4.12 Facing police corruption by and by arrestFaced corruption Frequency Percent (%)Yes 23 92.00%No 02 08.00%Total 25 100.00%This table-4.12 shows that maximum respondents faced corruption of police aft(prenominal) being arrested by police in percentage 92% respondents faced corruption of police later arrest. Only 8% respondents are not faced corruption of police afterwards arrest.Table-4.13 Nature of corruption faced after arrest by the respondentsNature Frequency Percent (%)Gratuities 01 04.35%Bribes 13 56.52% Theft of property 02 08.70%Falsifying evidence 03 13.04%Kickbacks 02 08.70%Shakedowns 02 08.70%Total 23 100.00%This table-4.13 shows that maximum respondents faced bribes as a police corruption after arrest in percentage 56.52% respondents faced bribes as a police corruption after being arrested. About 13.04% respondents faced falsifying evidence, 04.35% respondents faced gratuities and 08.70% faced theft of property, kickbacks and shakedowns, as a police corruption arrest. So minimum respondents faced gratuities as police corruption and in percentage is 04.35%.Table-4.14 Causes of police corruption after arrestCauses Frequency Percent (%)Low salary 14 60.86%Lack of morality 01 04.35%Power 02 08.70%Greediness 01 04.35%Personal gain 03 13.04%Political party pressure 02 08.70%Total 23 100.00%The table-4.14 shows that, maximum police corruptions at police station are produced by the police personnel for their lower salary and in percentage 60.86%. On the other hand the lowest police corruption is produced for lack of morality and greediness of the police. 13.04 percent (13.04%) police corruption is occurred for personal gain and power, political party pressure is responsible for 08.70% police corruption after arrest.Bivariate AnalysisCross TableCross table-1 Nature of corruption faced outside of the police station vs. Causes of producing corruption by police outside of police station outback(a) of the police station Causes of producing corruption by police outside of police station Total Low salary Lack of morality power greediness Personal gain Political party pressure Nature of corruption faced outside of the police station Gratuities 01, 3.03% 00, 0% 00, 0% 00, 0% 01, 3.03% 01, 3.03% 03, 9.09% Bribes 08, 24.24% 01, 3.03% 02, 6.06% 00, 0% 05,15.15% 06, 18.18% 22, 66.66% Theft of property 00, 0% 01, 3.03% 00, 0% 00, 0% 00, 0% 00, 0% 01, 3.03% Falsifying evidence 02, 6.06% 00, 0% 01, 3.03% 00, 0% 00, 0% 01, 3.03% 04, 12.12% Kickbacks 01, 3.03% 00, 0% 00, 0% 01, 3.03% 00, 0% 00, 0% 02, 6.06% Shakedowns 01, 3.03% 00, 0% 00, 0% 00, 0% 0, 0% 00, 0% 01, 3.03% Total 13, 39.39% 02, 6.06% 03, 9.09% 01, 3.03% 06,18.18% 08, 24.24% 33, 100%This cross table-1 shows that maximum respondents were faced bribes as a police corruption outside of the police station, in these cases the low salary was main reason for the police corruption. In percentage it is 24.24% Cross table-2 Nature of corruption faced at the police station vs. Causes of producing corruption by police at police station outback(a) of the police station Causes of producing corruption by police at police station Total Low salary Lack of morality power greedinessPersonal gain Political party pressure Nature of corruption faced at the police station Bribes 14, 42.42% 00, 0% 02, 06.06% 00, 0% 02, 06.06% 00, 0% 18, 54.55% Gratuities 01, 03.03% 00, 0% 00, 0% 01, 03.03% 00,0% 00, 0% 2, 06.06% Theft of property 02, 06.06% 01, 3.03% 00, 0% 00, 0% 00, 0% 00, 0% 03, 09.09% Falsifyin g evidence 02, 6.06% 00, 0% 01, 3.03% 00, 0% 00, 0% 01, 3.03% 04, 12.12% Kickbacks 01, 3.03% 01, 03.03% 00, 0% 00, 0% 00, 0% 01, 03.03% 03, 09.09% Shakedowns 01, 3.03% 00, 0% 00, 0% 00, 0% 02, 06.06% 00, 0% 03, 09.09% Total 21, 39.39% 02, 6.06% 03, 09.09% 01, 03.03% 04,18.18% 02, 24.24% 33, 100%This cross table-2 shows that maximum respondents were corrupted by the police at the police station for taking bribes from them and the low salary is the main reason for being corrupted of the respondents by the police at police station and in percentage it is 42.42%. So at police station the main nature of police corruption is bribe and it is more than outside of the station.Cross table-3 Facing corruption of police after arrest vs. causes of producing corruption by police after arrest. afterwards arrest Causes of police corruption after arrest Total Low salary Lack of morality power greediness Personal gain Political party pressure Facing corruption of police after arrest Yes 14, 60.86% 01, 04.35% 02, 08.70% 01, 04.35% 03, 13.04% 02, 08.70% 23, 100% No 00, 0% 00, 0% 00, 0% 00, 0% 00, 0% 00, 0% 00, 0% Total 14, 60.86% 01, 04.35% 02, 08.70% 01, 04.35% 03, 13.04% 02, 08.70% 23, 100%This cross table shows that maximum respondents were faced police corruption after arrest for the low salary of the police. About 60.86 percent (60.86%) respondents were being corrupted by the police after arrest for sol salary.Chapter-Five5. Case studies5.1. Case study 01Khokon was a student of Pathrail M.L. High School, Delduar, Tangail. He did court join a Hindi girls. He was a sister of a affection class family and the girl was a child of a high class Hindu family. The girl was willing for the court marriage but the girls family wasnt agreed of the marriage. They make a false case of women seize in Delduar Thana and Khokon were responsible for kidnapping their girl. He was made the main criminal for the kidnappimg.One day the police caught Khokon from his house with the girl . They come down the girl to her parents after taking a large sum of bribe from the girls family and brought Khokon to Thana. They tortured him very much and after some days the case was dismissed without pursuance in the court.They also demanded and took bribes from Khokons family. I took this cases because, I think this cases is a make better example of police corruption. The causes of police corruption according to this case is low or small salary,greediness, power of police etc.5.2. Case study 02Mohammad Roton, nick nake Roton 32 years old, is a businessman. He was also a political person. One day he was going to main town for his occupational necessity with the help of his motor-bike. On way, he was stopped by police and asked for his crusade license as well as the license of his motor-bike. But at that moment the license of his bike was not with him, though he has no driving license at all. For this he was rather unable to show his licenses.The police demanded money as b ribe to Mohammad Roton, instead of battle a case against him. The police officer showed fear to him that if he didnt pay the money demanded, he would be harassed. For this he was bound to give money instead of going through a legal process. He also has enough bad moneyFrom this case, we see that denying law and having bad money increase the opportunity of police corruption.Chapter-Six6. Summary and lowest Remarks6.1 SummaryThe police are a citizens first link with the criminal justice. But the police abuse their power for fulfill illegal desire. This research finds out the nature of police corruption and the causes of police corruption. General peoples perception towards police is not good.Most of the people believe that police are corrupted. Police exhibit some common types of corruption, these are bribes, kickbacks, gratuities, theft of property, falsifying evidence, shakedowns and material torture. The police officer do corruption because of low salary, political pressure, for personal gain, lack of morality, greediness, availability of bad money and their types of job or power of police. 6.2. Concluding RemarksThough purposive sampling has been used in this research from some of the homogenous cases. So, I think this research find out the nature and causes of Bangladesh police. Most of the general people of our country think that the police of Bangladesh are corrupted. Bangladesh police is the high corrupted department of Bangladesh government. Bangladesh police are providing low salary and they are not virtuously strong. Bangladesh police has also political arty pressures, poverty of police personnel mainly who are lower in rank.These embolden them to do corruption. The job nature and power is also a reason for police corruption we see in the study. Police officer mostly takes bribes, kickbacks, gratuities, do physical torture for bribes. This research shows that most police personnel corrupted for taking bribes, physical tortures, falsifying evid ences, theft for the suspect, proving information etc. people keep bad idea on police, they think that police are not good person. So to prevent police corruption these reasons have to be removed.The salary of the police personnel have to be increased enough, they have to provide moral education so they do their duties honestly. semipublic perception on police have to exchanged from bad to good by the police person doing well behave with them.1.5. Limitations of the studyThis research has many problems and limitations, such asI. The hypothesis and some other test such as chai-test, correlation are not shown here. II. In this research purposive sampling has been used so the other populations opinion was avoided and the sample size was small. III. adequate data cant be found because of want of some other technical method. IV. More questions should be used to collect more effective data about this research topic but the questions were less than needed.6.3. BibliographyAhuja, Ram, (199 6) Sociological Criminology. New Age transnational (P) Limited, India. Bohm, Robert M. and Haley, Keith N. (2002) Introduction to Criminal Justice, third edition. Glencoe McGraw-Hill.Frankfort-Nachmias, Chava and Nachmias, David (1997) Research Methods in the Social Sciences, twenty percent edition, St. Martins Press, lnc., New York. Haque, ANM Nurul. The Ferocity of the Police, In The Daily Star.3rd July, 2006 Hughes, Michael and Kroehler, Carolyn J.(2000) Sociology,6th edition,McGraw-Hill companies, Inc., New York. Huda, Mohammad Nurul. go throughling Crime and All That. In The Daily Star- twenty-ninth July,2006.Kashem, Mohammad B.(2002) Preventing Crime Police and Crime Control in Bangladesh. Khasrul Alam Quddusi, Kazi SM, Assistant Professor, plane section of Public Administration, University of Chittagong. Use of Hartal and Police, In The Daily Star,9th JuIy,2006. Malek, Adam. Police Remand. In The Daily Jugantar, 4th January, 2006. Paranjape, N.V., (2005) Criminology and P enology. rally Law Publication, Allahabad-2, India. Pearson, Judy Nelson, Paul Tetsworth, Scott and Harter, Lynn, (2004) forgiving Communication. McGraw-Hill Companies, New York. Police Activities A Study on Three Police Stations, (2004) Transparency International Bangladesh. Putwain, David and Sammons, Aidan (2002) Psychology and Crime. Taylor and Francis Group. Quinney, Richard(1979)Criminology. Little, Brown and Company (Canada) Limited.Reiner, Robert (2001) Introduction what Is Police Research? In Doing Research in Crime and Criminal Justice. Sanders, William B., (1983) In Criminology, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Schaefer, Richard T., (2004) Sociology A Brief Introduction, one-fifth edition, McGraw Hill Companies, New York. Stotland, Ezra and Berberich, John. (1979) The Psychology of the Police.In Psychology of Crime and Criminal Justice. cosmopolitan Declaration of Human Rights. In fall in Nations Civilian Hand book. (1995) United Nations plane section of Peace-keep ing operation. Vadackumchery, James (1997) Indian Police and stillbirth of Justice. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi. Wilson, James Q. & Kelling, George L. (1982) Broken Windows. In Atlantic Monthly. In Urban Society, 11th edition. McGraw-Hill company. Worden, Robert E. (2001) The causes of Police barbarity Theory and Evidence on Police Use of Force.Mawalana Bhashani Science and Technology UniversityDepartment of Criminology and Police Science.Survey Questionnaire(All the below information only will be used for research purpose. A respondent can answer the following question without any fear or hesitation)1. Age(Specific)2. sexual urge(1) Male (2) Female3. Marital spot(1) Married, (2) Unmarried, (3) Widow.4. Years of Schooling(Specific)5. What is your occupation?(1) Public service, (2) Private Service, (3) Business, (4) Labor.6. What is your income?(Specific)7. How much knowledge you have about the State Law?(1) real much, (2) Much, (3) Less, (4) Not at all.8. How muc h knowledge you have about the Police Law?(1) Very much, (2) Much, (3) Less, (4) Not at all.9. How much knowledge you have about the Human Right?(1) Very much, (2) Much, (3) Less, (4) Not at all.10. What is your attitude towards police?(1) Good, (2) Bad, (3) No idea.11. atomic number 18 you believed Police are corrupted?(1) Yes, (2) No.12. If yes, wherefore?Ans.13. Have you ever been to police station in order to any service? (1) Yes, (2) No.14. If yes, why?Ans.15. If yes, did you face any problem at police station?(1) Yes, (2) No.16. If yes, what types of problem did you face?(1) Gratuities, (2) Bribes, (3) Theft of property, (4) Falsifying evidence, (5) Kickbacks, (6) Shakedowns, (7) 17. Have you meet with police for any cause?(1) Yes, (2) No.18. If yes why?Ans.19. If yes, did you face any problem?(1) Yes, (2) No.20. If yes, what types of problem did you face?(1) Gratuities, (2) Bribes, (3) Theft of property, (4) Falsifying evidence, (5) Kickbacks, (6) Shakedowns, (7) 21. Why did police produce that problem according to your view?22. Had you ever been arrested by police?(1) Yes, (2) No.23. If yes, why?Ans.24. If yes, did you face any problem after arrest?(1) Yes, (2) No.25. If yes, what types of problem did you face?(1) Gratuities, (2) Bribes, (3) Theft of property, (4) Falsifying evidence, (5) Kickbacks, (6) Shakedowns, (7)

Friday, December 28, 2018

Rain of gold Essay

In Rain of deluxe is a slender hi legend of three generations of both families that rush adventures and struggles overcoming m some(prenominal) obstacles such as scantness, craze and discrimination. Initially caught up in the Mexican revolution of 1910. Tracing their migration to the get together States and the difficulties they faced, it portrays an perfect picture of intent in Mexico in the early 1900s and in the coastal ara of California during the time of prohibition by means of and through the 1930s. .Socially Espirito lived in poverty that he needed some capital for his people he had some sweet-smelling water that he had gotten from the Rio Urique River to go and interchange it to fool Carlos store because they were poor and cute some specie for their people.So thereforece he gave Don Carlos some favourable nug sting ins that were worth a lot of m maveny so he started trading the stones for nutriment and clothing by and by tire Carlos cut how much he w as qualification then later, he do an offer to espirito to dish step forward him the part of the origin nevertheless the spring was from the people who use it. Politically don Carlos sold the river because he could non get more lucky because he and espirito they made an agreement saying that don Carlos testament be able to only get the gold from the top part of the canon cliff and not to dig any part around the river.So after a couple of years he knew that the best thing to do was to trade in the canyon cliff to someone else. Don Carlos sold the canyon cliff to Bernardo Garcia he was a rancher that had no fear to no one or anything, he obdurate to dig into the river to get more gold out of it, went he knew that he wasnt getting gold anymore he sold the canyon cliff to an American miners company.Everything around canyon cliff started to disappear by constructing cosmic buildings, roads after the company prospered in 1910. Economically espirito peoples was really affected when they got kicked out of the canyon cliff because the money they were making it was for the American mining.Socially Lupe Gomez had to body of work at a young age and she overly would help her mother with the mineros to make the food, but one day moved with her family to the U.S. in 1923 to work in the cotton and fruit fields of Arizona and California and espouse Juan Salvador Villasenor, who had taken a similar route, in 1929.Socially Juan was in so much in discrimination when he go away Mexico to go to Los Angeles with his family.one day Juan went to a caf to squander breakfast and he asked for ham and eggs and coffee when the man axiom him he told Juan but you see, my waitress, shes new and so she didnt know we cant serve the Mexicans.(Villasenor pg.232).Like on where I saw on a goggle box that there was this soldier that was working for 38 months in the u.s.a he went to this restaurant and on outside the restaurant he saw a sign that said no Mexicans allowed.(Los Min eros). The Mexicans were discriminated just because they were Mexicans or also because of their trim color. Politically, the laws in the United States in the 1900s was the Mexicans were not allowed in restaurants, schools, stores, and other places just because of their struggle color and because they were Mexicans. EconomicallyIn conclusion, this story is based on how this families have differences betwixt the two families difficult journeys of survival yet, portrays their similarities and how their journeys culminate in the joining of the two families through the marriage of the youngest son of the Villasenor family and the youngest daughter of the Gomez family.The two families experience contrasting journeys as Juans family was poor in Mexico after formerly being rich, however, in the United States, his family becomes unwrap off due to Juans entrepreneurial activities. Meanwhile, Lupes family does not experience the aforementioned(prenominal) fortune as they leave Mexico as a lower-middle class family that supported itself through its serving food to miners and occasional conclusion of gold, and they are not able to secure economic prosperity when crossing into the United States and struggle to settle down and are continuously moving as they work in the fields picking crops from one place to another following the harvest. disrespect the difficulties that these two Mexican families suffer in their attempt to escape the Revolution and in their hope of a better life in the United States, Rain of Gold depicts the social and economic struggles of Mexican families and the impairment they experience in the United States and how Mexican immigration is similar to African immigration as well as Chinese and Japanese immigration into the United States. previous to both families immigration to the United States, Juan and Lupes families are centered around their mothers.Bibliography all told the sources I used1. Victor Villasenor2. Acuna3. Los Mineros PBS.1992.

Thursday, December 20, 2018

'Of Morality and Spirituality Essay\r'

'The honorable sacred Philippines started from a dream, and promptly that it impacts to progress it stop be wholeness good evidence that as longsighted as someone believes in an idea, it shag be possible. As long as its aim is for the goodness of the citizens, it can be a reality. This concept does non demand to create a institution of matinee idol exclusively rather a world of morality and spirituality. That world is where we can intelligibly distinguish the right ones from the bad. It is where we can not wholly think about ourselves except also the community, the government, and the nation.\r\nThis dream can entirely be possible if we comely go and believe that the land where we stand can be a better habitat of cosmos. From Genesis 1:27, God created mankind in His own image. This verse proves that severally of us is spiritual at heart. We just have to go and find the racetrack through our hearts. We argon created in His similitude which gives us the realization that all reenforcement things have something good in the inside. If we believe, educate something to make this work, the moral sacred Philippines pass on make sense. A. WRITING AS A SOCIAL ACT The event connects with how pen can be a neighborly act.\r\nIn the said event, one does not only think about himself solely also for the people around him. As for writing, a writer does not only write for him or for him to understand but also for his readers and audience. You write alone, but you forever and a day write for others. Readers matter. Once a writer sets his or her thoughts to each medium, whether paper, blog, status update, at that place is the potential for audience interaction. Ideas and creativity are created outside ourselves. Writers can never be more creative without the experiences and thoughts the people have. They continue to interact with people. Writing is a sociable act.\r\nWriters choose to see the beauty and brainiac of the world around them. Writing is nau ght without the world and mind that surrounds them. B. WRITING AS A MORAL ACT moral philosophy and spirituality is what the event focuses on. As for writing, writers do not only write everything that flows from their thinking, he must be careful. Something that anyone who writes language of any kind would do well to remember. language have their moral consequences. The responsibility is particularly great for writers who deal with spiritual issues. either word they write leaves its mark upon their psyche and upon the souls of those who read their work.\r\nTheir words whitethorn flummox sacraments, visible signs of an invisible grace, or they may turn to poison and ashes. It may mean the abyss or nothing at all. Writers must strive against mediocrity in one’s work, aiming always high for lucidity of thought and beauty of feeling with still being careful with the words they use. Every piece they make has an subject in this world. They are part of our moral conversati on as a society. They reckon in. The creation of literature worthy not only its high artistic job but of his stature as a creature created in the image and similitude of God.\r\n'

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

'Poverty in Appalachia Essay\r'

'The commonwealth of the Appalachian Mountains have been impoverish for years. They atomic number 18 all settling for a mint less then they should be. Most people in the mountains see that their pargonnts did not graduate from luxuriously teach so they expression that they don’t regard to. They see their families struggling with paying bills so they feel like they should not finish school and facilitate out by getting a belittled paying job and settling with working at Burger King or Walmart. They lack motivation to arrive at for excellence and overcome the obstacles of living in the mountains and possibly someday moving out.\r\n unity of the major problems of the absolute majority of the people who reside in the mountains is drug addiction. Families are broken up by drug addictions. It is an pandemic throughout the mountain. There are more drug busts in the mountain then in whatsoever major city such as Los Angeles or New York. This is an separate reason that people are very poor; they spend all their property on drugs and not enough for the bills, food, or water. One main job that a lot of people have in the mountains is working in the coalmines. running(a) in the coalmines pays a starting salary of $60,000, just is very dangerous.\r\nCoalmining can destroy your lungs and if in that location is an misfortune in the mines, you can be stuck down in that location for days at a time. In the Appalachian Mountains, they have about 100 open jobs for coalminers. The exclusively problem is that either nobody wants to work in the mines, or they cannot pass the required drug sieve to get the job. The Appalachian Mountains is a organise where there is much poverty and hardship. It is a town where some(prenominal) people do not finish high school and there is an excessive drug problem. Although it is a place of all these hardships, it is also a place where families stick together and help each other out when times get rough.\r\n'

Monday, December 17, 2018

'An Occurrence\r'

'The short invention stools key during the Civil War. Peyton Farquhar a civilian of the southeastward Is caught vlolatlng with the duet and Is sentenced to be hanged. Ambrose Bierces short layer became a nail-biting phenomenon. He maintain suspenses throughout the short story by enhancing the mind of Peyton into a deep fantasy. Bierces intake of flashbacks, setting, likeness, and symbolism to create suspense.In the second aragraph the story gives a flashback to outline Peytons lifestyle and why he is acquiring hanged. The flashback shows how Peyton was a slave owner and was a patron of the band together army. When Peyton has a confrontation with a joint spy posing as a confederate soldier it created suspense because Peyton didnt know what the reader knew. The flashback explains how Peyton got into this grass that were learned of earlier in the story. Symbolism throughout the story is used to show life and ending. genius example is the place Peyton is being hanged (the distich).The bridge symbolizes the cart track one must take to cross over between life and death. On one military position of the bridge represents Peytons life and the other side of the bridge where the soldiers are represented as death and war. Since Peyton took it upon himself to take action in the war he adopt to crossover to the said of war otherwise referred to as death where he will be hanged. The river on a lower floor Peyton also symbolizes the passage between life and death. In other religions when soul dies, they cross over a river to get to the other side.An example would be the River Styx in Greek mythology. The River Styx is know as the border between life and death that sends souls to the other side. Bierce creates one whacking Illusion to the reader as Peyton Is dying In a slow daydream. The readers perceptions of PeytonS thoughts and actions now becomes a blur line between illusion and reality. Peyton is imagining his escape from death but the reader doesnt know it is only an illusion lasting about 3 seconds originally he died. Like many say his life flashed before his eyes.His ability to escape gunfire underwater shows that he is dreaming because that would be nearly infeasible for someone who Is half conscious to dodge. This sense of Imposslblllty creates suspense as the reader wonders If Peyton will successfully escape alive(p) because It seems so unbelievable. Altogether these literary devices helped Bierce create a suspenseful short story. Without anyone of these devices he would not take up been able to make the reader suspenseful and shout out the predictable outcome of Peyton surviving.An Occurrence By denise_bgc hort story takes place during the Civil War. Peyton Farquhar a civilian of the south is caught violating with the bridge and is sentenced to be hanged. Ambrose Bierces that sends souls to the other side. Bierce creates one heroic illusion to the reader as Peyton is dying in a slow daydream. The readers perceptio ns of Peytons thoughts would be nearly impossible for someone who is half conscious to dodge. This sense of impossible action creates suspense as the reader wonders if Peyton will successfully escape alive because it seems so unbelievable.\r\n'

Sunday, December 16, 2018

'Hrm Assessment\r'

'â€Å"(HRM is) a strategic cash advance to managing practice transaction which emphasizes that leveraging people’s capabilities is vituperative to achieving sustained competitive advantage, this world achieved through a distinctive set of integrated employment policies, programmes and practices. ” (John Bratton / Jeffrey money; homo Resource counsel Theory And Practice, 2003) Although the hurt Human Resource Management and force-out Management atomic number 18 commonly intaked interchangeably, research has shown there argon substantial differences amidst the two.Personnel Management focuses more than than on the controlment of employees and dealing with administrative tasks much(prenominal) as employment laws, contractual obligations and the payroll of the caller-out, include the range of activities to do with managing the conk outforce rather than visions. Human Resource Management takes a strategic approach to the overall management of not only employmenters, exclusively their workplace and environment, focusing on aspects much(prenominal) as the safety, wellness, benefits, motivation, education and organization of employees.It can be say that Personnel Management is workforce concern; being largely about mediating amongst management and employees, spot Human Resource Management is resource centered; concentrating on the planning, monitoring and control aspects of resources. There are four major stages in the evolution of Personnel and Human Resource Management as we eff it today; fond justice human bureaucratism consent by talks organization and consolidation Social justice Social justice was the develop stage in Human Resource Management, dating back to the 19th Century, when the work of social reformers such as LordShaftesbury and Robert Owen led to the appointment of the first force out managers. Lord Shaftesbury was the leader of the Factory Reform forepart in the House of Commons and a spot contrib utor to the Factory Act of 1847, which minimized the functional hours of woman and children in factories to 10 hours per day and murder it illegal for kids under the age of 9 to be employed in textile factories. Robert Owen was a social reformer of the Industrial Revolution, who assisted the working ramify of England by helping ease labour hours and conditions, and the use of child labour. He as well as assisted in the employment standards of England.By the late 19th and early twentieth centuries, some large employers started appointing welfare officers to manage modern initiatives designed to make life easier for their employees, leading to high productiveness, improved retention of the workforce, and more applicants for each(prenominal) think over. celebrated welfare initiatives promoted by employers today include employee helper schemes, childcare facilities and health-screening programmes. Human bureaucratism The term â€Å"bureaucratism” means â€Å"rule by of fice”. bureaucracy is an organizational form used by sociologists and organizational professionals.The Industrial Revolution contributed to the development of bureaucracies, and modern bureaucracy emerged around 1850. In the 1930s, German sociologist, Max weber, canvass new forms of organization being actual to manage large numbers of people in knotty activities, his studies and work led to the popularization of the term. He discussed topics such as uniform principles, structure and hierarchy, merit dodging and specialization of job-scope. Weber exposit many a(prenominal) grand types of public administration and government in his work and many aspects of modern public administration go back to him.His research showed that large scale organizations were quasi(prenominal) in specific focussings and shared many similar features, concluding that each was a bureaucracy. Webster described bureaucracy as being the ideal way of organizing government agencies, and key in the continuing rationalization of western company. Websters principles were used throughout public and offstage sectors. He observe seven major principles; condition of jobs with detailed rights, obligations, responsibilities and scope of authority, system of supervision and subordination, angiotensin converting enzyme of command, xtensive use of written documents, training in job requirements and skills, application of consistent and complete rules, assign work and hire personnel based on follow through Another concept found largely in Webers theories is rationalization, a process into which a person enters and applies hardheaded knowledge to achieve results. While Webster believed bureaucracies were well organized machines that could accomplish any goal, he also noted disadvantages, one being that power shifted to only those individuals at the top, and could result in monocracy.Weber also discussed authority and want to learn what gave power to an individual to be sufficie nt to claim authority over another, such as man over woman. The success that bureaucracy produced during the industrial revolution and up to the late twentieth century, makes it the intimately relevant type of organisation for such industries. Webers thoughts on bureaucracy have influenced modern thinking and many still hold true. The main ideas of his seven principles are still relevant to many bureaucracies that exist, making Weber a truly innovative thinker, who continues to influence society and business today. Consent by negotiationNegotiation means bargain between two or more parties, each with its own aims, needs and views, seeking to discover a common ground and reach an agreement to win back a matter of mutual concern or resolve a conflict. Consent by negotiation helped develop Human Resource Management between the years 1935 and 1950, when a large increase in union membership in the United States force more emphasis on labour relations and collective bargaining within personnel management. The grandness of aspects such as compensation and benefits also increase, as unions negotiate paid holidays, vacations, and insurance coverage.HRM practices in firms are still regularly influenced by Unions. Companies which are enroll have to follow contracts which have been negotiated between the company and its union. These contracts control many HRM practices, including promotion, grievances, discipline, and over sentence. Firms which arent unionized can also be influenced by the threat of unions. For example, some companies make their Human Resource Management practices more equitable, treating workers more fairly, to avoid the chance of union representation by employees.Organization and integration The integrated phase of human resource management dates to the early 1970s to 1980s. In this period, it was focused on changing environment, such as individual experts in organization, specific areas, recruitment and training. In the late 60s, there was a chang e in focus among personnel specialists, from dealing mainly with the rank-and-file worker on behalf of management, to dealing with management itself and the integration of managerial activities.The development of life ladders and opportunities for personal ingathering within organizations characterised this phase. â€Å"As the 1960s and 1970s unfolded, a more personable group of managers emerged, and their interest in people and feelings influenced all facts of business, including the growth of market research, communications and public relations. This group of managers, emphasized the relationship between employers and employees, rather than scientific management. Programs to increase wages and decorate benefits continued to be developed.New studies linked greater productivity to management philosophies that encouraged worker ideas and initiatives” (Losey, 2010, online) Opportunities for personal growth is still a concern of personnel managers to this day, with time and r esources being spent on the recruitment and development of people who obtain expertise which the future of the business. men planning and manpower techniques have also been developed by Personnel managers, focusing on the liable need for employees with various skills in the future.\r\n'

Saturday, December 15, 2018

'Life in ancient Greece and medieval Europe\r'

'This essay briefly comp ares and contrasts a few salient features of sustenance in superannuated Greece and medieval atomic number 63.\r\nFamiliarities\r\nThe life history in old-fashioned Greece and during the shopping centre advance in Europe has tremendous jar on our lives today also. The effect of the antediluvian Hellenic life style is direct and that of the middle piece Europe is indirect.  The ancient classicals reach introduceed to us musical arrangement of governance like ‘democracy’ and the master after math of totally masculine sports: the Olympic games. On the some other hand, the life style of middle age, gave rise to the age of new thinking, the renaissance. It was during the middle age that intellectuals started their quest for know takege, which led to an upsurge or intellectual activities later. It was during the middle age that schools and Universities started being established across Europe. These gave ris e to centers of learning during the renaissance  consequence, later.( free-and-easy life in ancient  Greece, life ).\r\nWhile studying the life style of ancient Greeks and the people of middle age Europe, superstar more familiarity that strikes the reader is that in both the cases, grand stress was laid on education of children.  In ancient Greece, children were educated at primary direct at home mostly by the young-begetting(prenominal) slaves. The way education was imparted in the medieval period was slightly different. Schools had already come into existence, and concept of language, math and science had started developing slowly.( daily life in ancient Greece, life ).\r\nBoth the ages have effrontery memorable gifts to mankind. The ancient Greeks have given us 1)  trial by jury, 2)  the Greek mythology, 3) democracy,  and  4) recreational practise like dramatics, while the middle age has undecided the doors for establishment of schools for primary  aim and universities for the higher level education. The invention of Guttenberg’s printing press, is the greatest gift from the middle age to mankind. The forts and structures built by the rulers for tribute of citizens and worship of God, during these ages, are remarkable pieces of architecture.( daily life in ancient Greece, history )\r\nContrasts\r\nThe ancient Greek era is timed up to5th century B.C. while the medieval European age is timed from quaternate century A.D. to the 14th century A.D. Life in ancient Greece marked  the development of one of the purifications on this world, while life during the middle age is also known as a dark age, because of the tumble of activities in almost all spheres of life.( daily life in ancient Greece, life )\r\nThe biggest contrast surrounded by the two is that slavery existed in ancient Greece whereas it had no traces in the middle age Europe. Male and female slaves lived mise rable lives and were treated like commodities by their owners. They did non even have a right to have their own name. Slavery was so prominent in ancient Greece that there were as many slaves as the number of citizens in ancient Greece.\r\nThe Greek civilization spread over a small geographical area whereas the middle age Europe encompasses the solely of the continent. Despite the fall of the Roman empire, the Catholic  church service was the sole centralized authority to impress upon the rulers of all countries. In contrast, the ruling system in ancient Greece was heavily decentralized. In  ancient Greece, there existed a system of city-states. Each city was a state, governed independently. Athens, Sparta, Corinth,\r\nargus pheasant and Megara were the main city- states. ( Daily life in ancient  Greece, life ) The similarities between the life in ancient Greece and in the medieval Europe are few, whereas the contrasts are too many, and too promin ent also.\r\nWorks-cited page\r\nDaily life in ancient Greece, 2006, Retrieved on 4 May 2007 from:\r\n< http://members.aol.com/donnclass/Greeklife.html >\r\nLife & History, 2000, Retrieved on 4 May 2007, from:\r\n< http://www.medieval-life.net/ >\r\n< http://www.medieval-life.net/history_main.htm >\r\n'

Friday, December 14, 2018

'SolutionstoBullying\r'

'GE riddle for pargonnts and teachers, because occlusiveping bullying is a hard designate and they very much dont know t he ruff ways to go about it. There are three key elements to stopping bullying: educating the bullies, Punic sighing the bullies, and protecting the dupe. The reason that bullies must be better is that many of them are not aware of precisely how much they are hurting their victim.Most bullies wouldnt want their victim to become as sushi bang as they return made them. Bullying can come in all sorts Of forms and one that affects girls in particular I s a group of scalded friends excluding them from everything. In cases analogous these if the bullies understood t hat they had become bullies woof on a victim, they may think twice. The guerilla way to deal with the bullies is to punish them. This could be the o only thing that works for incredibly poorly equitable deal, because they will only care when it begins to affect the m.Bullying often isnt taken recourse enough, for example, if you punched a person in the middle of the s tree you would probably be arrested, but if it happens in a case of bullying, the perpetrator might only get a detention. The utmost main way to deal with bullying involves operative with the victim. Victim ms of bullying need to their ego worth so that they dont just let people bully them. All in all, there is no one is Engle solution for bullying, but its not good enough to ignore it just because its hard to deal with. But by SSI nag a crew of these three tactics we maybe able to stop it.\r\n'

Thursday, December 13, 2018

'Letter to Newspaper Essay\r'

'Traditionally heavy(a) assimilators are students who are pursuing knowledge in either, college (under grade or graduate point in times), vocational or occupational programs, continuing grooming or noncredit courses, correspondence courses and tutoring, as well as courses and separate directional activities provided by employers, community groups, and other providers (â€Å"grownup Learner,” 2012). The average age of an enceinte learner is 25 old age or older, it usually is a diverse group of great deal (â€Å" big(p) Learner,” 2012). These bad learners can be an independent student, employed full phase of the moon time, a person with dependents, a person who as a result of a death or divorce, is now single and wishes to complete a degree program and a veteran of the United States array (â€Å" self-aggrandising Learner,” 2012). There in care manner the mannerlong learners who broadly speaking have additional responsibilities such as family, ca reer, military, or community, and are seeking a degree or other cultivational offering to enhance their skipper and or personal lives (â€Å" magnanimous Learner,” 2012).\r\nEducation is both formally structured scholarship activity in which there are an instructor and curriculum. According to Bringhamton University (2012), the largest and prompt expanding market segment for gamyer education is the magnanimous learner. Universities and colleges need to adjust their infrastructure to attract fall in and serve big(p) learners. There is slight utmost school graduates entering colleges versus the large(p) learner (â€Å"Demographics,” 2012). With less traditional aged students and to a greater extent non-traditional or adult learners there will be less commonplace support, political leverage, and legislative support to finance an educational system that is designed primarily to serve the involve of traditional aged students without considering the special nee ds of a more age diverse student dust (â€Å"Demographics,” 2012). There is a push in uppercase for more federal dollars in adult training. They reckon the return on investment (ROI) from adult education and training is positive as billions of dollars could be earned, saved, and pump back into the struggling economy (Gonzalez, 2011).\r\nThe argument at capital is that adult education actually saves governments money by reducing societal healthcare, public assistance, and captivity costs. It in any case improves and expands the nation’s available puddle of workers by helping motivated, but undereducated people get jobs (Gonzalez, 2011). The theory of adult learning is the assumptions more or less how adults learn. Emphasizes the value of the process of learning in adults (â€Å"Adult Learning Theory,” 2007). Malcom Knowles and American practitioner and theorist of adult education defined is as an art and knowledge of helping adults learn (â€Å"Adult Lea rning Theory,” 2007). Knowles as well as defined six adult learning principles as adults are internally motivated and self-directed, adults bring life experiences and knowledge to learning experiences and are goal orientated. They also relevancy oriented and are practical learners who like to be respected when in the classroom (â€Å"Adult Learning Theory,” 2007).\r\nAs educators, we need to foster the adult learner’s internal motivation to learn. word a rapport with the adult learner, encourage them to look at questions and explore concepts. Some adult learners come with years of experience and knowledge, with this as an instructor or instructor we need to harvest this information and have them defy it to their new learning experiences. The need to for effective adult education over the past few years have increased. It is chief(prenominal) we support adult learners. As with the increasing adult learning population, we are also increasing our nationâ€⠄¢s available kitty of workers. It is primal that we invest in adult education as it nurture’s creativity, imagination and fulfilling lives.\r\n put in adult education is also important for families, communities and our country as a whole. Education is an important first step for some adult learners as it is a second chance in learning. Adult education is a great way for students that didn’t finish high school to get their high school diploma and expect on with their lives. Adult education is usually at night, so that the adults who run into it may still continue to go to work. This allows theses adults to continue to progress in their lives while adding more education to their resume and mind.\r\nReferences\r\nBecoming familiar with adult learning theory and the six principles of adult learning. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.qotfc.edu.au/resource/? rascal=65375 Gonzalez, J. (2011). Adult-education leaders visit capitol hill to push for more federal dollars. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/article/Adult-Education-Leaders-Visit/127448/ The effectuate of changing demographics on higher education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.binghamton.edu/cice/documents/NYSTAKeynotePPT.pdf Who is an adult learner? (2012). Retrieved from http://universitycollege.illinoisstate.edu/adult/who.shtml\r\n'