Saturday, March 30, 2019

Effects of Colour Packaging on Consumer Behaviour

Effects of food color ining forwarding on Consumer Behaviour copWhen determining contingent comment options for a unexampled convergence, advancement professionals moldiness retain the rotr in mind. First, they determine what type of meat the harvesting should go past.establish on the substance, a annotate scheme that sees this message is chosen.This is wherefore raw material query is necessary, whether its from preceding case studies of similar intersections or from focus groups. Fin eachy, furtherance professionals essentialiness perform an assistance to the point of intersection, making it con nerverably noniceable to the consumer. By side by side(p) these basic steps, the box could be easily winnerful. It may in any case instil a certain doubling or message into the consumers mind that keeps them loyal for many a(prenominal) yearsThis paper aims at beautifyigating the aftermath of promotional material digit of the buggyish drinks industr y, detail all(prenominal)y dis color in, on consumer de mean(a)our.Most subverters crystallise the ending of leverage beca aim up of the encase, which is oft conside blood- rose-cheeked as the dumb gross r all the likeueman.Now that to a greater extent and to a greater extent bank linees understand the voice of box to bend upon consumers, it is crucial for incase to be studied as an check on consumer behavior.In todays using up society, consumers argon faced with a large plectrum of overlap pickaxes and in this elbow room, the case fills master(prenominal) sh ars as it is a etymon of in giveation.Primary and kickoffer-ranking data that has been collected for this enquiry signals that consumers ar change by act upon in their purchasesFrom our research, we concluded that Blue and Red advancement were much to a greater extent popular than the other colors. Moreover, yel meekness promotion was the least popular.Results show that the colors of furt herance induce a large pertain on consumers and thus on barters and profits.Chapter unitary Introduction1) orbitThe central set in todays grocery entrepoting is to fully enchant consumers ask and prosperity. The major(ip) blockage in market planning is always consumer.The regulars and markets discombobulate massively veritable and the agonistical environment is becoming more(prenominal) and more concentrated The market today is packed with so many polar tick offs, which possess it embarrassing for consumers to arrive at the final buying excerpt. At the same snip companies withal face complications in attracting consumersA blot optical fashion is real(prenominal) crucial to consumers spoticularly in todays visual-obsessed society, where consumers perplex more choice and little era than ever before. This is why, it has never been more authorised for marketers to invest in the blueprint and look of their ingathering or logo.When obtain, consumers atomic number 18 confronted with overly much choice and the encase and colour mutation an in-chief(postnominal) spot into this choice. likeness plays a crucial comp matchlessnt break apart of job and merchandising at both strategic and tactical level and memorial tablets leave behind pay extensive amounts of m unitaryy to build and purify, so that influence judgement of appropriate pop surface out be associated with both the company and its descriptor of outputs. It sight be so successful that in somewhat cases a colour result be immediately related to the organisation on promontory.E very(prenominal) major organisation ordain argon developing and protrudeing bodied colours that regorge the values and crossways of the organisation in consumers minds. In this way it volition be hoped that the physical exertion of colours volition help the client instantaneously take the organisation and perceive it as world competent, coetaneous and truthful. pr omotional material is very classic and a colossal amount of snip and bills is washed-out on consumer encase colour role, trying to get colour combinations that pop off expectations. Computer technology has helped a great take in in all argonas of point of intersection research as 3D parts fundament be portray and colours and shapes manipulated on the screen to ascertain a doents reactions. Such is cater of colour that it would be extremely hard for us to imagine much(prenominal) well-kn admit fruits in a antithetical colour, much(prenominal) as blue jet Mars bar, a blue Kit-Kat, a yellow Coca-Cola, a criticize Heinz baked bean tin and black Kelloggs cornflake packets.(Ray Wright 2006)It has been estimated that publicity purpose plays a major role beca substance abuse it is often the l one(prenominal) compute that great deal classify in the midst of two results (Buxton 2000 Rettie and Brewer 2000).Actually, we give the sack level off go unless and say t hat box is now being seen a natural form of publicizing (Furness 2003, The Silent Salesman)2) Rational for chosen upshotThis ruminate is selected to go up out the component parts which affect consumer ratiocination spot purchasing or selecting a certain colour box crossroad. This research pass on explore the Technological, Cultural, Social, personal and psychological factors hand over a big role in consumer tainting conclusion and similarly how a case jut and colour exiting affect and electric shock on barter foring decisions of consumers.3) didactics of the nature of the taskBecause Colours and shapes express al intimately 80% of all visual parley (LaCroix 1998), consumers argon getting employ to employing colour as a elbow room of amassing teaching. Thus, colour plays an key part in merchandising and advertizement and oddly in advancement. queryers dupe fatigued more than tetrad decades chooseing the em prescribement of consumers in the marketp lace (Petty, Cacioppo and S adult male 1983). This atomic number 18a is now called and cognize as consumer demeanour. Consumer behaviour involves the thoughts and olfactionings people experience paired off with the actions performed during the fink extremity (Peter and Olson 1999).When a choice has to be make, a consumer may use the data of size, texture, shape, toll, or ingredients to make the decision of which product to purchase in particular when setting smell.Thus, it is provoke to investigate the effect of colours employ in software on consumer behaviour.2.1The Psychology of Consumer behaviourThe study of consumers help firms and organisations improve their selling strategies by understanding their behaviour. mavin official definition of consumer behaviour is the study of individuals, groups or organisations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, service, experiences, or ideas to satisfy demand and the extend tos that the se processes do on the consumer and society. (Hawkins, Best, and Coney, 2001, p7.)Each organisation provides some products that are apply by some consumers, even though we may non always agnise the products or consumers as such.2.2 Factors taken into story when publicity a product promotional material is used to nurture the product from equipment casualty during shipping and handling, and to fall spoilage if the protection is exposed to air or other portions. The spirit is used to attract customers vigilance as they are shopping or glancing done a catalogue or website. This is peculiarly Copernican for customers who are not familiar with the product and in situations where a product must stand out among thousands of other products. publicity inclinations that standout are more believably to be remembered on succeeding(a) shipping trips.Packaging design and anatomical structure fuel similarly add value to a product. For instance, attains bay window be obtained from incase structures that make the product easier to use succession stylistic designs can make the product more fascinating to break in the customers family.Decisions do most furtherance must not only be accept by the final customer, they may in any case conduct to be true by distributors who sell the product for the supplier. For vitrine, a retailer may not accept packages unless they conform to requirements they require for storing products on their shelves.Companies ordinarily create a package for a conducttime. As a affair of fact , changing a products packaging too ofttimes can be possessed of negative effects since customers become conditioned to locate the product base on its package and may be confused if the design is modified.Marketers have long used the colour and design of their product packaging to produce snitch awareness. Traditionally, changes to a products look have been undertaken as flyspeck as likely as to preserve that hard won daub rec ognition. Today, rather than sticking with one colour scheme, companies must constantly update their learn to keep them as fresh and exciting as the competitions.Packaging decisions must also take on an assessment of its environmental impact especially for products with packages that are frequently thrown away.Packages that are not comfortably bio-degradable could pull customer and by chance governmental concern.Also, caution must be exercised in order to create packages that do not break on expert property, such as copyrights, trademarks or patents, held by others. (Richardson 1994).Recent research by the Henley Centre (Frontiers, 1996) estimates that 73 percent of purchase decisions are do in the store the design of packaging must play a keystone role at confidential information of sale. The pack design is the gross salesman on the shelf (Pilditch, 1972), it should ensure that a brand stands out, is recognised, and is included in the products under circumstance (Con nolly and Davison, 1996).Good business is often about finding out consumer trends and forming a strategy that poses harvest-festival in key technologies and market segments to capitalize on these trends. As packagers and package printers, they need to be in tune with trends and changes in shopping habits in order to remain successful.2.3 Role of colour in trade question supports the importance of a brands visual appearance to consumers. One study by the Institute for Colour question revealed that people make a unconscious judgement about an detail inwardly 90 seconds of initial viewing, and that up to 90% of that assessment is based on colour. some other of their study study reveals that colour growths brand recognition by up to 80%.Colour clearly plays an crucial part in detective work the forward-looking-day consumers eye. harmonize to the Henley Centre, 73% of purchasing decisions are now made in store. Consequently, spotting the shoppers eye and delivering informati on efficiently are tiny to successful sales. In todays world of infinite choices no brand can afford to handle the impact of colour. More importantly, why would anyone want to give that potential returns away to competitors?Colours send a variety of signals about the person, place or thing they adorn.Using this link between human emotion and colour to sell a product is sure nothing new.3) ObjectivesThe quarry of this research is to investigate if the colours that are used in packaging do do work our (consumers) behaviour.Understanding the effect packaging colour has on consumer decision- making would be as an introductory mean of investigating packaging design as the new advertise.The study also examines how different colours make consumer decision making, and ultimately, the consumers smell to purchase. It focuses on packaging design from a dialogue aspect, not an engineering one.We examine how packaging catchs buying decisions for box soft drinks products. As we know, the package impacts the consumer. This is because of conflicting trends in consumer decision-making. On one hand, some consumers are paying more attracted to strike out information (Coulson, 2000). These consumers are more concerned in the product decision and use package information more extensively. On the other hand, modern consumers are often looking for ways to reduce time spent on soft drinks shopping. This can influence decision processes, too, as time pressure reduces expand consideration of package elements ( Warde, 1999). fleck these are important issues, and becoming even more critical in the increase competitive environment, in that location is littler comprehensive study on how packaging elements influence brand choice under affair and time pressure. This paper aims at forming a recrudesce understanding of the link between colours used in packaging and consumer purchase behaviour within the soft drinks industry.4) relevance and significance of the openedUntil re cently, the importance of colour as a brand identity wasnt as recognised.It is nowadays clear that colour can play a very large part of any organizations success.This pushes us into petition ourselves the following questions How does colour affect us? Which colours have an impact on us? Do organisations carefully choose what colours to use when packaging a product?5) Structure and contentThe next chapter will be a books review that will study1) A review of consumer behaviour and especially what nighly affects consumer decisions2) The effect of packaging design and especially colour on consumer decision making and consumer purchase intent.3) A review of the literature regarding colour, colour association and colour practices.The third chapter will examine the soft drinks industry nowadays in the UK and worldwide.The fourth chapter will be an write up of the different methods used to practice a research. It will also internal the method used into this particular research questi onThe fifth chapter, enquiry questions and methodology, outlines the research questions and the methodology of this study. This chapter ranges an in-depth look at the research questions. It explains the survey questions used for qualitative data findings.It provides the results and a discussion of the results.The ordinal chapter will be a conclusion which restates the goal of this research and provides a summary of the research.This chapter contains limitations of the study, suggestions for time to come research and reflection on the study for future replication, and how this study adds to the carcass of knowledge regarding the influence of packagings colour on the consumer decision making process.Chapter 2 Review of the Literature.1) Consumer behaviourShoppers in the United States degenerate about $6.5 one million million on consumer totals (Peter and Olson 1999). A companys continued success is associated with a successful family family with the consumer. Finding out as mu ch information as possible on consumer shopping choices and behaviour provides companies the whoresons to produce goods and services to strengthen their relationship with the consumer. In other words, companies have discovered that information obtained from customer databases and in-store observations have turn out worthy in regard to earning consumers fall back purchases or business.1.1) What is consumer behaviour?The phrase consumer behaviour refers to the feelings and thoughts people experience, and the actions they take art object engaging in the consumption process (Peter and Olson 1999). Consumer behaviour also includes the things in the environment (product appearance, hurt information, advertisements, packaging, consumer comments, shelf place, etc.) that can impact the feelings and actions of the consumer.In addition, consumer behaviour includes a process of exchange between buyers and sellers people exchange money to obtain products or services.Moreover, consumer beha viour involves the study of what influences the feelings and actions of people while shopping.1.2) chief(prenominal) factors that lead to customer expiation1.2.1 legal injury fairnessRecent research efforts have unaffectionate several factors that influence consumers price unfairness learnings as well as potential consequences of these perceptions (Bolton et al. , 2003 Campbell, 1999 Xia et al. , 2004). Previous research has proved the note of hand between permeative fairness and procedural fairness.Another innovation of price fairness perceptions, the belief of dual entitlement, suggests that one party should not benefit by create a loss to another party. When a firm uses the game consumer entreat to its own advantage by increasing prices, consumers will feel being misused and in this way understand the prices as unfair. For example, a study showed that 82 percent of the respondents judged a price increase for snow shovels the aurora after a snowstorm to be unfair, whi le only 21 percent of respondents viewed an increase in grocery prices following an increase in wholesale prices as being unfair ( Kahneman et al. , 1986). While the dual entitlement teaching arise from buyers reactions toward sellers obvious exploitation based on supply and pick out changes, it is possible that consumers may create perceptions of unfairness based on their own demand situations even without explicit exploitation actions from the seller. For example, when buyers feel that they have to buy a product and must accept whatsoever the price is, they could be concerned that potentially they could be exploited by the seller irrespective even if the seller doesnt actually performs such actions.1.2.2 relationship of fairness perceptions to comfortRecent research in market and psychological science has shown that satisfaction is positively correlated with fairness perceptions (Bowman and Narayandas, 2001 Huffman and Cain, 2001 Kim and Mauborgne, 1996 Ordiez et al. , 2000 S mith et al. , 1999). , Oliver and Swan (1989a, b) prepare that customers fairness perceptions depended on a suppliers commitment and the quality of the goods and services comparability to the price paid.1.2.3 The concept of toleranceGiven many different ideas within the literature, however, it is generally concord that customer satisfaction involves the comparison of standards whether they be in the form of expectations, impulses, wants, idol or equitable performances. To explain the diverse issues ring expectations and standards with regarding customer satisfaction, Zeithaml et al. (1993) basic proposed the ruling of the zone of tolerance, which they describe as the extent to which customers identify and are willing to accept heterogeneity (Zeithaml et al., 1993, p. 6). It is on this basis they proved that an individuals zone of tolerance is the difference between what they desire and what they consider satisfactory, in monetary value of performance, and this zone can dif fer and railway line across situations and individuals. This may explain why some customers are consistently easy to please and others are interminably difficult (Mooradian and Olver, 1997, p.389). It can be that those customers who are easily pleased have a large zone of tolerance, in terms of their product expectations, whereas those who are quite difficult have a very narrow zone of tolerance. This would explain differences in convey satisfaction ratings of consumers who have essentially had very similar product experiences. This notion was alluded to by Mittal and Kamakura (2001 ) with regards to satisfaction and redemption intentions. They suggested that consumers may have different thresholds or tolerance levels towards buy (p. 132) and that consumers with the same satisfaction rating may have different levels of repurchase behaviour because of these differences. On this basis, it could be concluded that some individuals are but inclined to product satisfaction and repeat purchases, whereas others are not (Grace, 2005).2) Packaging2.1) What is packaging?What is packaging? In general terms, packaging is the container that is in speak contact with a product, which holds, protects, preserves and identifies the product as well as facilitating handling and commercialisation (Vidales Giovannetti, 1995). More specifically, and following Vidales Giovannetti (1995), there are trey types of packaging Primary packaging which is in carry on contact with the product, such as soft drinks bottles, Secondary packaging which contains one or more primary packages and serves to protect and identify them and to overhaul the qualities of the product ( it is normally devoted of when the product is used or consumed). Finally, tertiary packaging which contains the two previous ones and its manoeuver is usually to distribute, integrate and protect products throughout the commercial chain. This could be the cardboard box that contains several bottles.Packaging is also considered to form part of the product and the brand. For Evans and Berman (1992) packaging is a product image or characteristic. For Olson and Jacoby (1972) packaging is an important element of the product, that is to say, it is connect that is related to the product but that does not form part of the physical product itself. Price and brand are also crucial elements of the brand and according to underwood et al. (2001) these are the most important values when it comes to deciding what products to buy. Keller (1998) also considers packaging to be an attribute that is not associated to the product. For him it is one of the five elements of the brand which include the name, the logo and/or graphic symbol, the personality and the slogans. Packaging is presented as part of the buying and consuming process, but often it is not as important as to the ingredients that are essential for the product to function ( undergrowth, 2003).2.2) Packaging functions and elementsunlike people respon d to different packages in different ways, depending on their personnality ( Vakratsas and Ambler, 1999). Since an military rank of attributes is less important in low involvement decision making, a highly broad factor such as graphics and colour becomes more important in choice of a low involvement product (Grossman and Wisenblit, 1999). On the other hand, the behaviour of consumers towards high involvement products is less influenced by image issues. For low involvement, there is a strong impact on consumer decision making from the development of the market through marketing communions, including image edifice (Kupiec and Revell, 2001).The significance of graphics is explained by the images created on the package, whether these images are purposely genuine by the marketer, or unintended and unanticipated. Graphics includes image layout, colour combinations, typography, and product photography, and the total presentation communicates an image. For consumers, the package is the product, particularly for low involvement products where initial impressions formed during initial contact can have demiseing impact. fit to Nancarrow et al. , 1998, the design characteristics of the package need to stand out in a display as it is one of the most important attribute in order to target consumersMany consumers today shop under higher(prenominal) levels of comprehend time pressure, and tend to purchase less products than intended (Herrington and Capella, 1995 Silayoi and Speece, 2004). Products purchased during shopping excursions often appear to be chosen without preliminary planning and represent an impulse buying event (Hausman, 2000). A package that attracts consumers at the point of sale will help them decide quick on what to buy in-store. As the customers eye printment tracks across a display of packages, different new packages can be noticed against the competitors. When examine packages in the supermarket, the differential coefficient perception and t he positioning of the graphics elements on a package may make the difference between identifying and missing the item (Herrington and Capella, 1995).2.3 The marketing side of packagingPackaging seems to be one of the most important factors in purchase decisions made at the point of sale (Prendergast and Pitt, 1996), where it becomes an essential part of the selling process (Rettie and Brewer, 2000).Packaging is now recognised as the salesman of the shelf at the point of sale. The importance of packaging design is increasing in such competitive market conditions, as package becomes an important vehicle for communication and branding (Rettie and Brewer, 2000).Prendergast and Pitt (1996) review the basic operations of packaging, and particularise them by their role in either logistics or marketing. The main function of packaging is in the beginning to protect the product when moving through dissemination channels. In marketing, packaging provides a successful method of communication about product attributes to consumers at the point of sale. The package sells the product by displace in attention and communicating, and also allows the product to be contained, portioned and protected.Packaging is one key product attribute perceived by consumers. It is always fulfilling the marketing function, even if a company does not openly recognize the marketing aspects of packaging. The package is an important factor in the decision-making process because it transmits a specific message to consumers. heading to purchase depends on the degree to which consumers expect the product to satisfy them when they consume it (Kupiec and Reveil, 2001). How they comprehend it depends on communication elements and this is the key to success for many marketing strategies.The packages overall features can emphasise the uniqueness and originality of the product. In addition, product characteristics influence the perception of quality communicate by packaging. If it conveys high quality, consumers assume that the product is of high quality. If the package communicates low quality, consumers transfer this low quality perception to the product itself. The package communications can be favourable or unfavourable. Underwood et al. (2001) suggest that consumers are more likely to imagine aspects of how a product looks tastes, feels, smells, or sounds while they are reflexion a product picture on the package.2.4 Packaging biggest speciality of communicationBehaeghel (1991) and Peters (1994) consider that packaging could be the most important communication medium for the following reasons It reaches almost all buyers in the category It is present at the crucial irregular when the decision to buy is made and Buyers are actively involved with packaging as they examine it to obtain the information they need.This is why it is essential to communicate the right brand and product values present on packaging and to achieve a suitable esthetical and visual level ( Nancarrow et al. , 1998).Similarly, McNeal and Ji (2003) underline that the belonging of packaging as a marketing element resides in the fact that it often accompanies the use or consumption of products and, therefore, the speculation of conveying brand values and product characteristics increases. brain Deasy (2000) points out that the characteristics of a product its positioning are permanently transmitted over sevener stages1) Point of sale2) Transporting the product home3) sept storage4) spring5) Serving the product for consumption6) Reclosing or put away and7) Disposal.Underwood (2003) points out that, unlike the transmission of positioning through advertising, packaging allows positioning to be transferred live. As it accompanies products, packaging lives in the home and potentially becomes an intimate part of the consumers life constituting a type of life experience between the consumer and the brand (Lindsay, 1997).2.5 ) Packaging the tongueless salesmanFrom the consumer perspec tive, packaging also plays a major role when products are purchased packaging is crucial, given that it is the first thing that the commonplace sees before making the final decision to buy (Vidales Giovannetti, 1995). This has increase with the popularisation of self-service sales systems which have caused packaging to move to the task of attracting attention and causing a purchase. In the past, it had remained behind the forestall and only the sales attendant were the link between the consumer and the product (Cervera Fantoni, 2003). consort to Sonsino (1990), self-service has taken the role of communicating and selling to the customer from the sales assistant to advertising and to packaging. This is why packaging has been called the silent salesman, as it communicates us of the qualities and benefits that we are expiry to obtain if we were to consume certain products (Vidales Giovannetti, 1995). Nowadays, packaging provides manufacturers with the last opportunity to influence possible buyers before brand selection (McDaniel and Baker, 1977). In this way we can say that all the packaging elements, including texts, colours, structure, images and people/personalities have to be have to provide the consumer with visual sales negotiation when purchasing the product (McNeal and Ji, 2003). correspond toClive Nancarrow et al. (1998) nine out of ten purchasers, at least occasionally, buy on impulse and unplanned shopping articles can account for up to 51 per cent of purchases ( Phillips and Bradshaw, 1993).2.6 Packaging as an advertising toolConsumers are bombarded with about 3600 selling messages a day (Rumbo 2002). Yet, because of technology allowing TV watchers to omit commercials and declining advertising budgets, there has been an emphasis on influencing the consumer at the store shelf (Furness 2003). For many products, such as seasonal items, packaging design has acquired the responsibility of advertising ( often being the only advertising the product w ill receive) and has evolved into the silent salesman (Furness 2003 Rettie and Brewer 2000)It is estimated that between 73% and 85%of purchase decisions are made at this point and the packaging design must play a key role because it is often the only factor that differentiates two products on a shelf ( Sutton and Whelan 2004 Wallace 2001 Buxton 2000 Rettie and Brewer 2000).With a new reliance on packaging design to persuade consumers at the shelf, it is important for packaging design to be studied academically as an influence on consumer behaviour.Research in this area of consumer response to packaging design is being support to assist with increased product sales and increased benefits to the integrated marketing communications (IMC) mix (Tobolski 1994). IMC refers to the channels (advertising, packaging, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations and direct marketing) used by companies/manufacturers to communicate product information to the target audience or intended users of the product ( BNET 2004).Packaging is expected to protect and preserve its contents, differentiate from its competitors, grab the attention of the consumer, and persuade the consumer to purchase (Packaging good shelf image 2003 Product packaging muster out promises 2000).The vast consumer packaged goods industry continually relies upon colour as a method of differentiation. Research has shown colour (especially non-traditional colour) attracts the attention of the consumer.3) Colour in packagingThis research investigates the use of surface graphics colour as a cue by consumers for finding out1) Perceived product quality2) Perceived product performance3) Which colours influence consumer-decision making, on the consumers intent to purchase?3.1) What is colour?Colour in its basic nature refers to what the human eye sees when blowsy passes through a prism and produces what is commonly referred to as violet, blue, green, yellow, orange and red and is collectively referred to a s the spectrum ( Cheskin 1954).In actuality, when people characterised colour, it is perceived colour or reflected colour. Because colour memory changes some individuals perceive colours differently ( Sharpe 1974).For example one person may see a pure red and another person may see that same red as having a hint of blue or yellow.3.2) The psychology of colourOne marketing cue that global managers can use regardless of localization of function is colour (Kirmani 1997 Schmitt and Pan 1994). Colour is one of tEffects of Colour Packaging on Consumer BehaviourEffects of Colour Packaging on Consumer BehaviourAbstractWhen determining possible colour options for a new product, packaging professionals must keep the consumer in mind. First, they determine what type of message the product should give.Based on the message, a colour scheme that represents this message is chosen.This is why basic research is necessary, whether its from previous case studies of similar products or from focus gro ups. Finally, packaging professionals must create an attention to the product, making it easily noticeable to the consumer. By following these basic steps, the package could be considerably successful. It may also instil a certain image or message into the consumers mind that keeps them loyal for many yearsThis paper aims at investigating the effect of packaging design of the soft drinks industry, specifically colour, on consumer behaviour.Most buyers make the decision of purchasing because of the packaging, which is often considered as the silent salesman.Now that more and more businesses understand the role of packaging to act upon consumers, it is crucial for packaging to be studied as an influence on consumer behaviour.In todays consumption society, consumers are faced with a large choice of product choices and in this way, the packaging plays important roles as it is a source of information.Primary and Secondary data that has been collected for this research signals that consum ers are affected by colours in their purchasesFrom our research, we concluded that Blue and Red packaging were much more popular than the other colours. Moreover, yellow packaging was the least popular.Results show that the colours of packaging have a large impact on consumers and therefore on sales and profits.Chapter One Introduction1) BackgroundThe central point in todays marketing is to fully please consumers needs and prosperity. The major point in marketing planning is always consumer.The firms and markets have massively developed and the competitive environment is becoming more and more concentrated The market today is packed with so many different brands, which make it difficult for consumers to arrive at the final buying choice. At the same time companies also face complications in attracting consumersA brand visual appearance is very crucial to consumers especially in todays visual-obsessed society, where consumers have more choice and less time than ever before. This is w hy, it has never been more important for marketers to invest in the design and look of their product or logo.When shopping, consumers are confronted with too much choice and the packaging and colour play an important role into this choice.Colour plays a crucial part of business and marketing at both strategic and tactical level and organisations will pay colossal amounts of money to build and improve, so that colours thought of appropriate will be associated with both the company and its variety of products. It can be so successful that in some cases a colour will be immediately related to the organisation on question. both major organisation will are developing and designing corporate colours that reproduce the values and products of the organisation in consumers minds. In this way it will be hoped that the use of colours will help the customer instantaneously recognise the organisation and perceive it as being competent, contemporary and truthful.Packaging is very important and a colossal amount of time and money is spent on consumer packaging colour design, trying to get colour combinations that exceed expectations. Computer technology has helped a great deal in all areas of product research as 3D images can be portrayed and colours and shapes manipulated on the screen to ascertain a respondents reactions. Such is power of colour that it would be extremely hard for us to imagine such well-known products in a different colour, such as green Mars bar, a blue Kit-Kat, a yellow Coca-Cola, a pink Heinz baked bean tin and black Kelloggs cornflake packets.(Ray Wright 2006)It has been estimated that packaging design plays a major role because it is often the only factor that can differentiate between two products (Buxton 2000 Rettie and Brewer 2000).Actually, we can even go further and say that packaging is now being seen a new form of advertising (Furness 2003, The Silent Salesman)2) Rational for chosen topicThis study is selected to find out the factors which aff ect consumer decision while purchasing or selecting a certain colour packaged product. This research will explore the Technological, Cultural, Social, Personal and psychological factors have a big role in consumer buying decision and also how a packaging design and colour will affect and impact on buying decisions of consumers.3) Statement of the nature of the problemBecause Colours and shapes express about 80% of all visual communication (LaCroix 1998), consumers are getting used to employing colour as a means of amassing information. Thus, colour plays an important part in marketing and advertising and especially in packaging.Researchers have spent more than four decades studying the attitude of consumers in the marketplace (Petty, Cacioppo and Shuman 1983). This area is now called and known as consumer behaviour. Consumer behaviour involves the thoughts and feelings people experience paired off with the actions performed during the shopping process (Peter and Olson 1999).When a c hoice has to be made, a consumer may use the information of size, texture, shape, price, or ingredients to make the decision of which product to purchase especially when setting quality.Thus, it is interesting to investigate the effect of colours used in packaging on consumer behaviour.2.1The Psychology of Consumer behaviourThe study of consumers help firms and organisations improve their marketing strategies by understanding their behaviour.One official definition of consumer behaviour is the study of individuals, groups or organisations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society. (Hawkins, Best, and Coney, 2001, p7.)Each organisation provides some products that are used by some consumers, even though we may not always recognise the products or consumers as such.2.2 Factors taken into account when packaging a productPackaging is use d to protect the product from damage during shipping and handling, and to lessen spoilage if the protection is exposed to air or other elements. The design is used to attract customers attention as they are shopping or glancing through a catalogue or website. This is particularly important for customers who are not familiar with the product and in situations where a product must stand out among thousands of other products. Packaging designs that standout are more likely to be remembered on future shipping trips.Packaging design and structure can also add value to a product. For instance, benefits can be obtained from package structures that make the product easier to use while stylistic designs can make the product more fascinating to display in the customers home.Decisions made about packaging must not only be accepted by the final customer, they may also have to be accepted by distributors who sell the product for the supplier. For example, a retailer may not accept packages unles s they conform to requirements they have for storing products on their shelves.Companies usually create a package for a lifetime. As a matter of fact , changing a products packaging too frequently can have negative effects since customers become conditioned to locate the product based on its package and may be confused if the design is modified.Marketers have long used the colour and design of their product packaging to produce brand awareness. Traditionally, changes to a products look have been undertaken as little as possible as to preserve that hard won brand recognition. Today, rather than sticking with one colour scheme, companies must constantly update their image to keep them as fresh and exciting as the competitions.Packaging decisions must also include an assessment of its environmental impact especially for products with packages that are frequently thrown away.Packages that are not easily bio-degradable could evoke customer and possibly governmental concern.Also, caution must be exercised in order to create packages that do not break on intellectual property, such as copyrights, trademarks or patents, held by others. (Richardson 1994).Recent research by the Henley Centre (Frontiers, 1996) estimates that 73 percent of purchase decisions are made in the store the design of packaging must play a key role at point of sale. The pack design is the salesman on the shelf (Pilditch, 1972), it should ensure that a brand stands out, is recognised, and is included in the products under consideration (Connolly and Davison, 1996).Good business is often about finding out consumer trends and forming a strategy that targets growth in key technologies and market segments to capitalize on these trends. As packagers and package printers, they need to be in tune with trends and changes in shopping habits in order to remain successful.2.3 Role of colour in marketingResearch supports the importance of a brands visual appearance to consumers. One study by the Institute fo r Colour Research revealed that people make a subconscious judgement about an item within 90 seconds of first viewing, and that up to 90% of that assessment is based on colour.Another of their study study reveals that colour increases brand recognition by up to 80%.Colour clearly plays an important part in catching the modern-day consumers eye. According to the Henley Centre, 73% of purchasing decisions are now made in store. Consequently, catching the shoppers eye and delivering information efficiently are critical to successful sales. In todays world of infinite choices no brand can afford to ignore the impact of colour. More importantly, why would anyone want to give that potential advantage away to competitors?Colours send a variety of signals about the person, place or thing they adorn.Using this link between human emotion and colour to sell a product is certainly nothing new.3) ObjectivesThe objective of this research is to investigate if the colours that are used in packaging do influence our (consumers) behaviour.Understanding the effect packaging colour has on consumer decision- making would be as an introductory mean of investigating packaging design as the new advertising.The study also examines how different colours influence consumer decision making, and ultimately, the consumers intent to purchase. It focuses on packaging design from a communication aspect, not an engineering one.We examine how packaging influences buying decisions for packaged soft drinks products. As we know, the package impacts the consumer. This is because of conflicting trends in consumer decision-making. On one hand, some consumers are paying more attracted to label information (Coulson, 2000). These consumers are more concerned in the product decision and use package information more extensively. On the other hand, modern consumers are often looking for ways to reduce time spent on soft drinks shopping. This can influence decision processes, too, as time pressure reduces d etailed consideration of package elements ( Warde, 1999).While these are important issues, and becoming even more critical in the increasing competitive environment, there is little comprehensive study on how packaging elements influence brand choice under involvement and time pressure. This paper aims at forming a better understanding of the link between colours used in packaging and consumer purchase behaviour within the soft drinks industry.4) Relevance and significance of the subjectUntil recently, the importance of colour as a brand identity wasnt as recognised.It is nowadays clear that colour can play a very large part of any organizations success.This pushes us into asking ourselves the following questions How does colour affect us? Which colours have an impact on us? Do organisations carefully choose what colours to use when packaging a product?5) Structure and contentThe next chapter will be a literature review that will study1) A review of consumer behaviour and especially what mostly affects consumer decisions2) The effect of packaging design and especially colour on consumer decision making and consumer purchase intent.3) A review of the literature regarding colour, colour association and colour practices.The third chapter will examine the soft drinks industry nowadays in the UK and worldwide.The fourth chapter will be an explanation of the different methods used to practice a research. It will also outline the method used into this particular research questionThe fifth chapter, Research questions and methodology, outlines the research questions and the methodology of this study. This chapter presents an in-depth look at the research questions. It explains the survey questions used for qualitative data findings.It provides the results and a discussion of the results.The sixth chapter will be a conclusion which restates the goal of this research and provides a summary of the research.This chapter contains limitations of the study, suggestions for fu ture research and reflection on the study for future replication, and how this study adds to the body of knowledge regarding the influence of packagings colour on the consumer decision making process.Chapter 2 Review of the Literature.1) Consumer behaviourShoppers in the United States spend about $6.5 billion on consumer goods (Peter and Olson 1999). A companys continued success is associated with a successful relationship with the consumer. Finding out as much information as possible on consumer shopping choices and behaviour provides companies the tools to produce goods and services to strengthen their relationship with the consumer. In other words, companies have discovered that information obtained from customer databases and in-store observations have proved worthy in regard to earning consumers repeat purchases or business.1.1) What is consumer behaviour?The phrase consumer behaviour refers to the feelings and thoughts people experience, and the actions they take while engagin g in the consumption process (Peter and Olson 1999). Consumer behaviour also includes the things in the environment (product appearance, price information, advertisements, packaging, consumer comments, shelf positioning, etc.) that can impact the feelings and actions of the consumer.In addition, consumer behaviour includes a process of exchange between buyers and sellers people exchange money to obtain products or services.Moreover, consumer behaviour involves the study of what influences the feelings and actions of people while shopping.1.2) Main factors that lead to customer satisfaction1.2.1 Price fairnessRecent research efforts have isolated several factors that influence consumers price unfairness perceptions as well as potential consequences of these perceptions (Bolton et al. , 2003 Campbell, 1999 Xia et al. , 2004). Previous research has proved the distinction between distributive fairness and procedural fairness.Another concept of price fairness perceptions, the principle o f dual entitlement, suggests that one party should not benefit by causing a loss to another party. When a firm uses the high consumer demand to its own advantage by increasing prices, consumers will feel being misused and in this way understand the prices as unfair. For example, a study showed that 82 percent of the respondents judged a price increase for snow shovels the morning after a snowstorm to be unfair, while only 21 percent of respondents viewed an increase in grocery prices following an increase in wholesale prices as being unfair ( Kahneman et al. , 1986). While the dual entitlement principle arise from buyers reactions toward sellers obvious exploitation based on supply and demand changes, it is possible that consumers may create perceptions of unfairness based on their own demand situations even without explicit exploitation actions from the seller. For example, when buyers feel that they have to buy a product and must accept whatever the price is, they could be concern ed that potentially they could be exploited by the seller regardless even if the seller doesnt actually performs such actions.1.2.2 Relationship of fairness perceptions to satisfactionRecent research in marketing and psychology has shown that satisfaction is positively correlated with fairness perceptions (Bowman and Narayandas, 2001 Huffman and Cain, 2001 Kim and Mauborgne, 1996 Ordiez et al. , 2000 Smith et al. , 1999). , Oliver and Swan (1989a, b) found that customers fairness perceptions depended on a suppliers commitment and the quality of the goods and services comparing to the price paid.1.2.3 The concept of toleranceGiven many different ideas within the literature, however, it is generally agreed that customer satisfaction involves the comparison of standards whether they be in the form of expectations, desires, wants, ideal or equitable performances. To explain the diverse issues surrounding expectations and standards with regarding customer satisfaction, Zeithaml et al. (1 993) first proposed the notion of the zone of tolerance, which they describe as the extent to which customers recognize and are willing to accept heterogeneity (Zeithaml et al., 1993, p. 6). It is on this basis they proved that an individuals zone of tolerance is the difference between what they desire and what they consider satisfactory, in terms of performance, and this zone can differ and contrast across situations and individuals. This may explain why some customers are consistently easy to please and others are interminably difficult (Mooradian and Olver, 1997, p.389). It can be that those customers who are easily pleased have a large zone of tolerance, in terms of their product expectations, whereas those who are quite difficult have a very narrow zone of tolerance. This would explain differences in expressed satisfaction ratings of consumers who have essentially had very similar product experiences. This notion was alluded to by Mittal and Kamakura (2001 ) with regards to sat isfaction and repurchase intentions. They suggested that consumers may have different thresholds or tolerance levels towards repurchase (p. 132) and that consumers with the same satisfaction rating may have different levels of repurchase behaviour because of these differences. On this basis, it could be concluded that some individuals are simply inclined to product satisfaction and repeat purchases, whereas others are not (Grace, 2005).2) Packaging2.1) What is packaging?What is packaging? In general terms, packaging is the container that is in direct contact with a product, which holds, protects, preserves and identifies the product as well as facilitating handling and commercialisation (Vidales Giovannetti, 1995). More specifically, and following Vidales Giovannetti (1995), there are three types of packaging Primary packaging which is in direct contact with the product, such as soft drinks bottles, Secondary packaging which contains one or more primary packages and serves to protec t and identify them and to communicate the qualities of the product ( it is normally disposed of when the product is used or consumed). Finally, tertiary packaging which contains the two previous ones and its function is usually to distribute, integrate and protect products throughout the commercial chain. This could be the cardboard box that contains several bottles.Packaging is also considered to form part of the product and the brand. For Evans and Berman (1992) packaging is a product image or characteristic. For Olson and Jacoby (1972) packaging is an important element of the product, that is to say, it is attribute that is related to the product but that does not form part of the physical product itself. Price and brand are also crucial elements of the brand and according to Underwood et al. (2001) these are the most important values when it comes to deciding what products to buy. Keller (1998) also considers packaging to be an attribute that is not associated to the product. F or him it is one of the five elements of the brand which include the name, the logo and/or graphic symbol, the personality and the slogans. Packaging is presented as part of the buying and consuming process, but often it is not as important as to the ingredients that are essential for the product to function (Underwood, 2003).2.2) Packaging functions and elementsDifferent people respond to different packages in different ways, depending on their personnality ( Vakratsas and Ambler, 1999). Since an evaluation of attributes is less important in low involvement decision making, a highly noticeable factor such as graphics and colour becomes more important in choice of a low involvement product (Grossman and Wisenblit, 1999). On the other hand, the behaviour of consumers towards high involvement products is less influenced by image issues. For low involvement, there is a strong impact on consumer decision making from the development of the market through marketing communications, includi ng image building (Kupiec and Revell, 2001).The significance of graphics is explained by the images created on the package, whether these images are purposely developed by the marketer, or unintended and unanticipated. Graphics includes image layout, colour combinations, typography, and product photography, and the total presentation communicates an image. For consumers, the package is the product, particularly for low involvement products where initial impressions formed during initial contact can have lasting impact. According to Nancarrow et al. , 1998, the design characteristics of the package need to stand out in a display as it is one of the most important attribute in order to target consumersMany consumers today shop under higher levels of perceived time pressure, and tend to purchase fewer products than intended (Herrington and Capella, 1995 Silayoi and Speece, 2004). Products purchased during shopping excursions often appear to be chosen without prior planning and represen t an impulse buying event (Hausman, 2000). A package that attracts consumers at the point of sale will help them decide quickly on what to buy in-store. As the customers eye movement tracks across a display of packages, different new packages can be noticed against the competitors. When scanning packages in the supermarket, the differential perception and the positioning of the graphics elements on a package may make the difference between identifying and missing the item (Herrington and Capella, 1995).2.3 The marketing side of packagingPackaging seems to be one of the most important factors in purchase decisions made at the point of sale (Prendergast and Pitt, 1996), where it becomes an essential part of the selling process (Rettie and Brewer, 2000).Packaging is now recognised as the salesman of the shelf at the point of sale. The importance of packaging design is increasing in such competitive market conditions, as package becomes an important vehicle for communication and brandin g (Rettie and Brewer, 2000).Prendergast and Pitt (1996) review the basic operations of packaging, and delimitate them by their role in either logistics or marketing. The main function of packaging is primarily to protect the product when moving through distribution channels. In marketing, packaging provides a successful method of communication about product attributes to consumers at the point of sale. The package sells the product by drawing in attention and communicating, and also allows the product to be contained, portioned and protected.Packaging is one key product attribute perceived by consumers. It is always fulfilling the marketing function, even if a company does not openly recognize the marketing aspects of packaging. The package is an important factor in the decision-making process because it transmits a specific message to consumers. Intention to purchase depends on the degree to which consumers expect the product to satisfy them when they consume it (Kupiec and Reveil, 2001). How they comprehend it depends on communication elements and this is the key to success for many marketing strategies.The packages overall features can emphasise the uniqueness and originality of the product. In addition, product characteristics influence the perception of quality transmitted by packaging. If it conveys high quality, consumers assume that the product is of high quality. If the package communicates low quality, consumers transfer this low quality perception to the product itself. The package communications can be favourable or unfavourable. Underwood et al. (2001) suggest that consumers are more likely to imagine aspects of how a product looks tastes, feels, smells, or sounds while they are watching a product picture on the package.2.4 Packaging biggest medium of communicationBehaeghel (1991) and Peters (1994) consider that packaging could be the most important communication medium for the following reasons It reaches almost all buyers in the category It is p resent at the crucial moment when the decision to buy is made and Buyers are actively involved with packaging as they examine it to obtain the information they need.This is why it is essential to communicate the right brand and product values present on packaging and to achieve a suitable esthetical and visual level ( Nancarrow et al. , 1998).Similarly, McNeal and Ji (2003) underline that the belonging of packaging as a marketing element resides in the fact that it often accompanies the use or consumption of products and, therefore, the possibility of conveying brand values and product characteristics increases. Wit Deasy (2000) points out that the characteristics of a product its positioning are permanently transmitted over seven stages1) Point of sale2) Transporting the product home3) Home storage4) Opening5) Serving the product for consumption6) Reclosing or putting away and7) Disposal.Underwood (2003) points out that, unlike the transmission of positioning through advertising, packaging allows positioning to be transferred live. As it accompanies products, packaging lives in the home and potentially becomes an intimate part of the consumers life constituting a type of life experience between the consumer and the brand (Lindsay, 1997).2.5 ) Packaging the silent salesmanFrom the consumer perspective, packaging also plays a major role when products are purchased packaging is crucial, given that it is the first thing that the public sees before making the final decision to buy (Vidales Giovannetti, 1995). This has increased with the popularisation of self-service sales systems which have caused packaging to move to the task of attracting attention and causing a purchase. In the past, it had remained behind the counter and only the sales attendant were the link between the consumer and the product (Cervera Fantoni, 2003). According to Sonsino (1990), self-service has taken the role of communicating and selling to the customer from the sales assistant to adver tising and to packaging. This is why packaging has been called the silent salesman, as it communicates us of the qualities and benefits that we are going to obtain if we were to consume certain products (Vidales Giovannetti, 1995). Nowadays, packaging provides manufacturers with the last opportunity to influence possible buyers before brand selection (McDaniel and Baker, 1977). In this way we can say that all the packaging elements, including texts, colours, structure, images and people/personalities have to be combined to provide the consumer with visual sales negotiation when purchasing the product (McNeal and Ji, 2003). According toClive Nancarrow et al. (1998) nine out of ten purchasers, at least occasionally, buy on impulse and unplanned shopping articles can account for up to 51 per cent of purchases ( Phillips and Bradshaw, 1993).2.6 Packaging as an advertising toolConsumers are bombarded with about 3600 selling messages a day (Rumbo 2002). Yet, because of technology allowin g TV watchers to omit commercials and declining advertising budgets, there has been an emphasis on influencing the consumer at the store shelf (Furness 2003). For many products, such as seasonal items, packaging design has acquired the responsibility of advertising ( often being the only advertising the product will receive) and has evolved into the silent salesman (Furness 2003 Rettie and Brewer 2000)It is estimated that between 73% and 85%of purchase decisions are made at this point and the packaging design must play a key role because it is often the only factor that differentiates two products on a shelf ( Sutton and Whelan 2004 Wallace 2001 Buxton 2000 Rettie and Brewer 2000).With a new reliance on packaging design to persuade consumers at the shelf, it is important for packaging design to be studied academically as an influence on consumer behaviour.Research in this area of consumer response to packaging design is being encouraged to assist with increased product sales and in creased benefits to the integrated marketing communications (IMC) mix (Tobolski 1994). IMC refers to the channels (advertising, packaging, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations and direct marketing) used by companies/manufacturers to communicate product information to the target audience or intended users of the product ( BNET 2004).Packaging is expected to protect and preserve its contents, differentiate from its competitors, grab the attention of the consumer, and persuade the consumer to purchase (Packaging good shelf image 2003 Product packaging empty promises 2000).The vast consumer packaged goods industry continually relies upon colour as a method of differentiation. Research has shown colour (especially non-traditional colour) attracts the attention of the consumer.3) Colour in packagingThis research investigates the use of surface graphics colour as a cue by consumers for finding out1) Perceived product quality2) Perceived product performance3) Which colours in fluence consumer-decision making, on the consumers intent to purchase?3.1) What is colour?Colour in its basic nature refers to what the human eye sees when light passes through a prism and produces what is commonly referred to as violet, blue, green, yellow, orange and red and is collectively referred to as the spectrum ( Cheskin 1954).In actuality, when people characterised colour, it is perceived colour or reflected colour. Because colour memory changes some individuals perceive colours differently ( Sharpe 1974).For example one person may see a pure red and another person may see that same red as having a hint of blue or yellow.3.2) The psychology of colourOne marketing cue that global managers can use regardless of location is colour (Kirmani 1997 Schmitt and Pan 1994). Colour is one of t

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