Saturday, March 30, 2019

Most Important World Famous Educationists Theology Religion Essay

roughly Important World Famous contri only wheneing upists worship Religion EssayPlato and Rousseau be the most important reality illustrious schoolingists who pass contributed much to the advancement of human nuance. Present didactics dust of the world stands on both the above thinkers.Platos informational doctrine was grounded in his famous lay down The Republic, The Laws wherein the case-by-case(a) was best served by creation subordinated to a just society. Rousseau wrote in his take Emile, Discourse of Political Economy, The New Heloise and Considerations on the G everyplacenment of Poland.In lifeing in mind the philosophies, ideas of Plato and Rousseau on precept hypothesis discussed above, this push focuses on the similarities and dissimilarities among these two philosophers sh be in regard of philosophy of interpretingal activity. It besides carri ages at schooling out the influences among the information theories of Plato and Rousseau build on contemporary and come through with(predicate) generations. All over the world in normal, and at measuring the influences reflected in planning and designing the melodic theme study policy in Bangladesh in particular.1.2 Rationale of the StudyThis query is mainly for gathering bedledge. E genuinely movement or sociable situation has a chronology. Without beneathstanding this chronology, it is difficult to understand the current situation of that movement. Plato and Rousseaus program line theories contributed much to the salvation of their existentm men which is really praiseworthy. Their theoretical and matter-of-fact efforts divine serviceed to break the long standing superstitions, blind faith and absurd ideas. This pick out leave alone be a matter of great teaching for the sacrifice and succeeding generations that allow for fulfill the have a go at itledge gap existing in this ara. Their realistic and utilitarian views on fostering certainly result diss ipation an effective section in preparing innovational font citizens fit for modern world. The investigated info drawn from the relative reputation on the didactics possibleness of Plato and Rousseau in planning and designing back be used in the locution of matter precept policy of our dry land.1.3 General Objective of the StudyThe general objective of the myth is to Analyze a comparative study on the pedagogyal theory of Plato and Rousseau.1.4 Specific Objectives of the StudyThe specific objectives of the study argon to Assess, evaluate and comp are the philosophy of training developed by Plato and Rousseau. eng residualer out the influence of their philosophy of commandment on contemporary and succeeding generations.Assess the role of Philosophy of Plato and Rousseau in planning and designing the topic precept policy in our country.1.5 Research Questions of the StudyWhat did Plato and Rousseau mean by philosophy of discipline?What roles did Plato and Rousseau t ake over to the development of the philosophy of education?What influences did the philosophies of education of Plato and Rousseau have on the contemporary philosophers and thinkers?What are the results to be drawn from the comparative study between the philosophies of education of Plato and Rousseau?What roles of philosophy of Plato and Rousseau in planning and deigning the dry landal education policy in our country?1.6 Definition of Key cost breedingEtymologi retrievey, the word education is derived from Educare (Latin) bring up, which is related to Educere bring out, bring forth what is within, bring out potential and Ducere to lead (Source www.etymonline.com/index.php?term= originate video.ted.com/ have wordss/podcast/AimeeMullins_cc9p.mp4). sup rigSome social look forers have meant by theory special ideas such as- concept, frame of reference, conceptual scheme, perspective, hypothesis, generalization, ideal type, paradigm, typology etc. (Alam, 1993, p. 107)Education theoryE ducational theory may refer to either wild educational thought in general or to a theory of education as someaffair that guides, explains or describes educational practice.PhilosophyPhilosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems connected with existence, knowledge, values, cerebrate, mind and language.1.7 Scope of the StudyThis look into will cover Plato and Rousseaus thoughts along with the Major literature on them. usable information on them from Magazines and news paper of that clock time are in addition used to image out their actual philosophy of education. We shall discuss their philosophy of education along with the thoughts of otherwise philosophers who have contributed much to the development of education in modern society. We shall assimilate the ideas of Plato and Rousseau with the ideas of other philosophers of education. In this way the investigateer would make a comprehensive study on the philosophy of education.1.8 Limitations of the StudyThe stu dy would be mainly based on printed documents such as various articles, essays, journals, books and research working through with(p) on the comparative study on the educational theory of Plato and Rousseau. Concurrently all information from individuals related to the bounty study wishings to a greater extent time and money. there are scarce some research work strikeed on the issue and very few articles index be published on the journals but the investigator did non acquire every research work on that issue in Bangladesh.Chapter 2 Review of LiteratureReviewing literature means study of other literatures for purpose out the research gap. So far as the researcher has surveyed, this is a new field to study. The researcher has gone through all the belles-lettres of Plato, as well as good number of books written on him such as The Republic, Laws etc. The researcher withal reviewed books written by Rousseau. These are Emile, Discourse on Equality, A discourse on semi govern mental Economy, Social contract etc. Here, the researcher has presented some studies related to Plato and Rousseaus education theory by diametrical researchers like Patricia M. Lines, Shackling the Imagination Education for faithfulness in Plato and Rousseau. M all aspects of Platos recommendations for education resemble those adopted by innate democracies in different countries. According to him education must be requisite and free to all, with government control and support. Plato identified four interdependent virtues (Wisdom, heroism, afflict and Justice) as essential to be ideal in The Republic. Wisdom guides the philosopher-ruler. Courage moves the auxiliaries (the soldiers and the bureaucrats). Discipline, sometimes translated as moderation, as trues that each class carries out its assigned role and that the governed obey the governors. Justice- the supreme ordering principle-ensures harmony and balance within the individual and the declare. These virtues should lead to a full understanding of the Truth, the Good and the Beautiful, which according to Plato is the highest reality. deal Plato, Rousseau intentions at creating an ideal citizen. Unlike Plato, he wants to prepare this citizen for democracy. Rousseau regards virtue as the ultimate remnant of education. He offers a simple rule. Emile the Hero in his book must never harm a nonher. To achieve this goal, the tutor isolates the children from others. two Plato and Rousseau offer a limited view of virtue. Still, both reveal a certainty that they fully understand and know how to en courageousness the right virtues. (www.amazon.com/shackling-immagination-education-rousseau-humanitas/dp/b0043uonp08) Samuel Scolnicov, Plato on Education as the Development of Reason. Plato stresses his Socrates new concept of reason (nous). Reason is not a tool for attaining goals independently thought worthy possessions, honor, personal and political success rather, rationality itself, expressed in the openha nded of reasons and the avoidance of contradictions, confers value to goals and beliefs. The ultimate educational objective, indeed, is to bring nigh a revolution in the learners perception of the role of reason, namely the recognition of its normative, and not merely theoretical or instrumental nature. Platos theory of education aims at specifying the conditions of the growth of the Socratic man, whose soul is free from contradictions and whose excellence is justified knowledge.(www.bu.edu/wcp/papers/Anci/Anciscol.htm) Farhan Zainulabideen, A Critical Review of the Aims of Education in the Western Tradition. Plato is the early important thinker on education. He is also the commencement forge to have laid down a comprehensive outlook of education that was interconnected with his views of society and its aims. In Republic, Platos primary aim of education is to beat the elites inevitable to govern the ideal city. The supreme product of the education process is the philosopher -king who rules the city. The highest aim of education for Plato is the knowledge of good, which in turn in appeases the four great virtues wisdom, courage, watch and justice. Jean-Jacques Rousseaus intellectual range and achievements are staggering. He made epochal contributions to political theory, literature and education. His educational tract, Emile, transformed the debate about children upbringing and was very largely instrumental in altering the Western perception of childhood. He overturned conventional wisdom on the nature of childhood and education with a radical discourse in this fictional novel. The fundamentals of Rousseaus educational creed are nature and freedom. He believed that children should develop their skill and electrical condenser in nature and enjoy freedom. This goal in education was really the first step in ensuring a more social society, where born(p) law is seen to accomplish harmony and balance and to get rid of substitute man-imposed coercive res trictions (http//www.ips.org.pk/education/IIII-acriticalreviewoftheaimsof education).Plato was disturbed by condition of society, its corruption and shallow-dreams. In his famous work The Republic, Plato tried to teach Good and beauty to his scholarly persons (Lee, 1987, p. 161). Jean-Jacques Rousseau convert that men and women had lost their worth that can be revived in natural phenomena so that we might learn to live together in ways that foster a better ethics of citizenship (Bloom, 1979, p. 25). Rousseau believes that the primary goal of education is to prepare men and women to be moral agents who, while surviving autonomously, also live with each other.Many researches have been done on various aspects of Plato and Rousseau. But no research has yet been done on the problem of education theory of Plato and Rousseau. So there may be some gap in this field. For this reason this problem may be an important issue of a research work. The present study is such an attempt.Chapter 3 M ethodologyThe systemology of the present research is descriptive and qualitative. loosely descriptive research is done on education related problem, academic decision making, designing plan, changing the syllabus and etc.(Samad, 2010, p.21) soft research is done on some qualitative resultants or topics (that are related with quality). qualitative research is very important especially in behaviorism. Because through education the personality of a man changes. (Tapan, 1987, p.21)The main referenceistic of the descriptive research is to provide reasonable explanation of the topic through data psychoanalysis. So it is found that descriptive research not only includes the description of the event or situation/state/condition but also includes comparative discussion, classification, explanation and evaluation.(Ali, 1988, p.19) In a descriptive research a researcher does not control the data. Only the process of observation, description and analysis of data can be controlled.(Zaman , 1987, p.7)Aristotle for the first time used deductive manner acting in case of presenting descriptive rule through argument and aft(prenominal) a century later Francis Bacon used the direct observational system. This method is known as inductive method. In this method data are placid sequentially from either field and decision is made. Inductive method is from particular to general. On the other hand, deductive method is from general to particular. (Zaman, 1987, p.11, 12)So, Qualitative and Descriptive method fits well in accomplishing the present research study from the selection of the materials till the completion of the research work. It includes the collection of material exit no gap in the connected aspects of the study, the scanning of the materials, their systematization and synchronization so that clear vision becomes apparent to complete the dissertation. Moreover, this method also covers, while writing the thesis, the arguments in favor of and against the proble m raised and then ratification of powerful opinion with convincing evidences and arguments. First the information has been collected from primary and secondary sources. The writings of Plato and Rousseau have been considered as the Primary data (Plato The Republic and The Laws. Rousseau Emile, Discourse of Political Economy, The New Heloise, and Considerations on the Government of Poland) and the writings on Plato and Rousseau published in various books, journals, article and research works have been considered as the Secondary data. The researcher has identified the contradiction carefully among educational theory of Plato and Rousseau maintaining strict objectivity to fulfill the aims and purpose of the present study. The collected data have been analyzed in order to find out the similarity and dissimilarity between Plato and Rousseau and by their thinking what miscellany of philosophy developed and influenced the succeeding generations. The researcher has used the logical analy sis for data analysis. The researcher has followed the American Psychological Association (APA) code and conduct for using the reference.Chapter 4 PlatoPlatos Philosophy of EducationPlatos educational philosophy was grounded in his vision of the ideal The Republic, The Laws wherein the individual was best served by being subordinated to a just society. Plato proposes a thoroughgoing communism for the guardians, and (I think) also for the soldiers, though this is not very clear. The guardians are to have small houses and simple food they are to live as in a camp, dining together in companies they a re to have no private tight-lacedty beyond what is absolutely necessary (Russell, 1946, p. 127). Socialism is now out-dated in the present world. Most of the people in the world now believe in individual freedom. The system that Plato has talked about for philosophers with a view to building an ideal state is not effective in most of the countries including Bangladesh.The Educational Theo ry of PlatoPlatos Theory of education was an indispensable necessity for mankind. It was a positive remedy for the problems and public presentation of justice in an ideal state. Rousseau says, Platos Republic is not a work on polities but the finest treatise on education that has ever been written. Nothing was more important to Plato in human life as education. He considers education the greatest thing in human life as he mentions in his famous book The Republic, the one great thing.Major ideas in Platos educational theory areEducation for all Plato would educate each boy and girl to the limits of their abilities.State education Education should be provided by the state, not by parents.Platos suggestion was that the state will take the tariff of educating the whole nation has been authentic in most of the countries. But it is not still properly implemented in Bangladesh because of her scarcity of fund and inability of parents but the country is trying to educate her all childre n.Aims of EducationTo produce future civil servants for the state.To produce virtuous, efficient and intellectual rulers for the country.To glorify courage and military skill among the warriors.To develop competent, obedient, and temperate workers.To develop a social disposition among all citizens.Virtue is knowledge and education is the main thing to acquire virtue. (Bhuiyan, 2010, p. 269)It (Platos theory of education) is an attempt to cure a mental disorder by mental medicine (Barker, 1967, p. 314).Element of Platos Education SystemThe first thing should be considered in education, which is dissever into two parts- melodyMusic used in broad term for drama, history, art, letters, philosophy, oratory and music in real term. Music means everything that is in the province of the muses (Russell, 1946, p. 126). Plato had made Protagoras lecture of childrens training in music as introducing rhythm and harmony into their souls and having a socializing influence for the whole life of m an stands in need of rhythm and harmony. Music is nearly as wide as what we should call culture (Cornford, 1941, p. 86). Music is not taught as a compulsory subject in our country as it was advocated by Plato. Nevertheless there are individual departments of Music and Theatre in public universities where students with special interests can study music.GymnasticGymnastic means carnal training and fitness (Russell, 1946, p. 126). Gymnastics is somewhat wider than what we call athletics. The tangible training suitable for a citizen soldier is briefly contrasted with that of the professional athlete. Finally, it appears that physical training, no less than education in literature and the arts, really has to do with the soul (Cornford, 1941, p. 90). bodily exercise is not taught as a compulsory subject in our country as it was advocated by Plato. But there are individual departments of natural Exercise in public universities where students with special interests can study physical exercise. Physical exercise is of paramount sizeableness in Bangladesh Army. In every institution in Bangladesh there is a course on physical exercise which is mandatory in military institutions only. Plato writes in his book The Republic. I believe, gymnastic, for the body, and music for the mind.The Curriculum of Platos Education SystemPlato define different stratums for the fundamental law and curriculumPrimary Education Primary education mainly consisted of reading and writing (Grammatic) learning and reciting epic and dramatic poetry, lyre-playing and singing lyric poetry, the fundamental principle of arithmetic and geometry (Music) and athletic exercises (Gymnastic) (Cornford, 1941, p. 65). Co-education at primary aim till the age of eighteen days.The age that Plato has advocated for primary education is not totally accepted in our country. Rather it is confined within 6 to 11 years. In our country primary education is free and compulsory. The compulsory primary educati on law what Plato has talked about has been passed in Bangladesh in 1992. legions Training after elementary education two years of Physical education should be given over over to them and be selected for high education to prepare for the future guardians of the state.Military education is not compulsory in our country as Plato has proposed. It is only compulsory for those who are physically fit and interested in taking military training. high(prenominal) Education Higher education should be given from twenty to thirty- louver years of age. At this stage a student will study mathematics, arithmetic, geometry, solid geometry, astronomy, harmonics, dialectic, program of studies, literature and philosophy. Later on he would be fit for a minor administrative position to get experience for the future more important governing positions. (Cornford, 1941, p. 230).Our education system is not very lengthy as Plato has advocated. In our country one can enter into any profession after compl emental ones higher education or can study for getting M.Phil and Ph.D degree.Plato has divided his educational curriculum into two aims. They are as followsPrimary level of educationHigher level of education/ Higher education.Primary EducationFirst stage (0-06)Up to 6 years children will be provided with education to flourish his/her latent talents. Meanwhile they will be taught politeness, airs and good taste.Second stage (06-18)From 6 to 18 years children will be taught only literature, music, and preliminary education on mathematics. Meanwhile children will be able to attain the great qualities such as self-control, disciplinary, punctuality, and the whimsy on the God.Third stage (18-20)Age from 18 to 20 years will be fixed for students physical exercise and military education. there will be no chance to teach any other subject within this time. The main purpose of this stage is to keep body fit and strong. Those who will succeed in the test at the end of the primary level w ill get the opportunity of receiving higher education.Higher educationFirst stage (20-30)This stage covers from 20 to 30 years. In this stage human beings will acquire knowledge on astrology, higher math, geometry, and music. In this stage they will be taught very carefully on these subjects and there will be an attempt to establish the relationship between math and reality.Second stage (30-35)This stage ranges from 30 to 35 years. In this stage students will be taught philosophy, logic and metaphysics etc.Third stage (35-50)This stage covers the time from 35 to 50 years. In this stage the students will acquire practical knowledge by combining their acquired knowledge and their real life experience, and they will be vested with small responsibilities of the state (Talukder and Awal, 2011, p. 95, 96). Plato classified the stages of education 2500 hundred years ago which has been adopted and differently categorized in four stages to meet the demands of the modern time. These stages ar e primary education, secondary education, higher secondary education and higher education.Platos View on Women EducationPlato also gives emphasis on women education and he prescribes the same kind of education for women like men. Women should have the same physical and educational training they should know the art of war. The main aim of Plato was that each member of the society should sign up his work and responsibilities. Plato believed that women are bear on to men and in some cases women are physically wearieder than men or may not. He suggested that those who are equal to men should be allowed to learn the same thing like men. In his book The Republic Plato describes how male and female receive the same education and be given the same duties in society. Thus the male and the female should be given the same duty of The Republic. (Cornford, 1941, p. 141) Platos opinion regarding women education has reliable the attention of the people of all over the world and the present wo rld has accepted the ideas of Plato. It has also been accepted in Bangladesh which has enormously enriched the nation. As a result, there is seen the empowerment of women folk. Platos opinion about women education has been received almost in many countries in the present world. The outcome of women education is as we see that many women, the Prime Minister, foreign minister, opposition party attractor are in various important positions in Bangladesh.Teaching MethodsPlato suggested different ways to educate the children such as through telling stories, play and imitation. Plato gives importance to nursery education, he thinks nursery education plays a critical role in the education of man it helps to build his moral character and state of mind The most important part of education is proper training in the nursery.Enforced exercise does no harm to the body, but enforced learning will not stay in the mind. (Nath, 1979, p. 57) In our country Platos material for education is used for t he development of education. Besides, multimedia projector and ocular sound system are used in higher level educational institutions, and maps, charts and models in primary level.Platos View on righteous moralityPlato presents his ideas for an ideal society in the The Republic and he provided details about the curriculum and system of education. According to Plato the ideal society should care for their offspring and the guardians would be responsible for the moral education of their children. Every person would know his duty and his responsibility. (Bhuiyan, 2010, p. 269) Plato talked about moral education in 427 BC, which is of paramount importance still in the perspective of Bangladesh. We teach our children moral lessons from the very counterbalance which is started by the parents, grandfathers and grandmothers. Moral institutions are also imparted to the student by their teachers in the schools, colleges and universities. Besides these, ethics is included in many disciplin es in our country. Moral deterioration is very acute in everywhere. The only way to get rid of this problem is to practice or nourish moral education properly.Chapter 5 RousseauRousseaus Philosophy of EducationRousseaus philosophy of education is called the philosophy of Naturalism. Rousseaus philosophy of life and society has been reflected in his philosophy of education. Proper education is achieved through the understanding of natural objects and beauties. In this system, nature itself is the teacher. According to Rousseau, children will learn from terzetto sorts of teachers such as nature, human being and objects. Having influenced and taught by this three sources is called an educated man by Rousseau. We can control human being and objects. But we cannot control nature. So education should be confined to the rules of nature. Go back to the lap of nature this idea is closely associated with Rousseau. In his book Emile, (Nurnobi, Fouzia and Champa., 2006, p. 277) he used nature in three senses. Psychological Nature, Physical Nature, Biological NatureRousseaus views on the aim of educationRousseau opines that the aim of education is not only to acquire knowledge but also to help flourishing of childrens talents.The aim of education for children will be different on the basis of its age. In childhood, education should build up its physical development. There is no need of moral and social teaching.The education in boyhood should aim at the exercise of sensual and mental development.The purpose of female education should be preparing a woman fit for her male counterpart. Excessive learning is not necessary for the womenfolk. (Dali and Imam, 1999, p. 42)Curriculum of RousseauThe education curriculum of Rousseau is not definite and well planned. Rousseau launched a war against the conventional education. So he was against the conventional curriculum. Rousseau did not like reading books. He said, Books teach us to talk about something on which we have no practi cal knowledge. Nonetheless, he selected the novel Robinson Crusoe as mandatory for Emile. According to him, this book can help Emile to be self-confident and self-sufficient. According to curriculum, physical exercise and health education have been given much emphasis in adolescence. Importance has also been given on the arts of hand made goods and vocational works. He has also talked about religious and moral education. But he was against Female education. mansion chores will be learning tasks of women. Rousseaus education related curriculum is not precise and well planned. (Uddin and Das, 2006, p. 247, 248)His education system which he advocated about 200 years ago is not fully coherent with the exiting education curriculum of Bangladesh. Nevertheless, the appeal and the necessity of his education about nature are still effective. For example, novel laureate poet Rabindranath Tagore has established Shanty Nike ton in the center of nature. Even in Bangladesh, Rajshahi, Chittagong , and Jahanggirnagor universities are established in the midst of natural beauties so that students and teachers can learn from nature.Teaching style of RousseauHis teaching method was inventive. In this method, a children is kept in the place of designing. A children learns through the process of examination. (Dali and Imam, 1999, p. 43) In fact, through the process of Rousseaus thinking laboratory method, invention method, education through work, sensual experience method were emerged.Rousseaus discovery method of learning is relevant to the existing notional method of Bangladesh. Because in the creative method, there is always a riddle or a story where students are to discover or find out the answers.Educational theoretical accountRousseau suggested two types of education framework based on different conditionsFirstly, education framework for a state and societySecondly, education for preserving survival of civilization salutes of Education in EmileHe divided education systems in five stages. Such as- coiffe 1 Infancy (0-5) Education in infancy must be based on physique so that the limbs of a children should be developed proportionally. No need to develop any robes at this time. He said A children is bad because he is weak make him strong and he will be good. Everything is good as it leaves the hands of the Author of things everything degenerates in the hands of man (Bloom, 1979, p. 37).Stage 2 The age of Nature (5-12) No particular traditional education should be given now. No education on language, history, geography needs to be provided now. Even religious education is not necessary. Rousseau said, Exercise the body, the organs, the senses and powers, but keep the soughing follow as long as you can. (Cited in Bhuiyan, 2010, p. 313).Stage 3 Pre-adolescence (12-15) Before adolescence a children needs not to read any special book. In this stage, Rousseau has advised to include physical lesson or any sort of education related to art and culture so that he can develop a sense of respect towards Labour (Dali and Imam, 1999, p. 43).Stage 4 Puberty (15-20) Rousseau has advised to start social education in this stage. Here children can develop a habit of social responsibility, co-operation, respect, love, and cub feeling. Rousseau said, we are born twice once for existing and again for benignant once for the species and again for sex. (Cited in Bhuiyan, 2010, p. 317)Stage 5 Adulthood (20-25) The openhanded Emile is introduced to his ideal partner, Sophie. The final task of the tutor is to instruct the young twain in their marital rights and duties. (Boyd, 1911, p. 130)5.11 Rousseaus View on Women EducationRousseau has negative opinion about women education, which is the result of his experiences in his personal and family life. His attitude towards women education is not accepted by any modern state of the world. A nation can not prosper keeping half of the population uneducated. So Rousseaus attitude towards women education is tot ally unacceptable and unrealistic in the modern perspective. This is a huge drawback of his philosophy of education.Expart 1 said that Rousseau has proposed to keep women under male domination for children bearing because women become inactive in that time according to Rousseau, this is the main reason of not giving the supremacy of women over men. There is another reason behind this that is the father has to be sure of the true identity of the new born children. This is the secret of Rousseau of not accept the equality of men and women. Rousseau has been affected by the fear of women from the civilization he has seen women as devious. In a poem Rousseau says about women, Enchante

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